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Nevertheless, a pathologic confirmation is needed in cases of a focal 18F FDG uptake in the thyroid gland. This article reports a rare case of a focal 18F FDG uptake lesion by PET, which was revealed pathologically to be lymphocytic thyroiditis. Testicular adrenal rest tumors TARTs are secondary to hypertrophy of adrenal rest cells in the rete testis in settings of hypersecretion of androgens.

Evaluation of myocardial glucose metabolism in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy using 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. Thirty HCM patients Reduction of that maximum SUV was particularly significant in the lateral region from 5. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma staging by 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. Chang, J. Methods and materials: A total of 95 patients, including 85 with primary and 10 with recurrent, NPC were enrolled.

Eighty-one patients without distant metastases underwent repeat studies months after initial radical treatment. Results: Of 14 patients with distant metastases, all had lesions detected by FDG-PET, and the conventional workup detected the metastases in only 4. Four patients without distant metastases on their initial workup were found to have new lesions on FDG-PET months after initial treatment.

Of the 95 patients, the FDG-PET results for distant metastasis were true positive in 14 patients, false positive in 8, and true negative in None of our patients had a false-negative result. The accuracy was Fried, David V. Purpose: To determine whether previously identified quantitative image features QIFs based on 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography FDG-PET co-occurrence matrix energy and solidity are able to isolate subgroups of patients who would receive a benefit or detriment from dose escalation in terms of overall survival OS or progression-free survival PFS.

Methods and Materials: Subgroups of a previously analyzed patient cohort were generated with the use of 5-percentile increment cutoff values of disease solidity and primary tumor co-occurrence matrix energy. The subgroups were analyzed with a log-rank test to determine whether there was a difference in OS and PFS between patients treated with 60 to 70 Gy and those receiving 74 Gy.

Results: In the entire patient cohort, there was no statistical difference in terms of OS or PFS between patients receiving 74 Gy and those receiving 60 to 70 Gy. It was qualitatively observed that as disease solidity and primary co-occurrence matrix energy increased, patients receiving 74 Gy had an improved OS and PFS compared with those receiving 60 to 70 Gy.

The opposite trend detriment of receiving 74 Gy was also observed regarding low values of disease solidity and primary co-occurrence matrix energy. Niedzielski, Joshua S. Methods and Materials: This retrospective study was approved by the local institutional review board, with written informed consent obtained before enrollment.

We used nSUV metrics to classify esophagitis grade at the time of the PET study, as well as maximum severity by treatment completion, according to National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, using multivariate least absolute shrinkage and selection operator LASSO logistic regression and repeated 3-fold cross validation training, validation, and test folds. Dose-volume metrics were also tested in both the multivariate classification and the symptom progression prediction analyses.

Classification performance was quantified with the area under the curve AUC from receiver operating characteristic analysis on the test set from the 3-fold analyses. Results: Statistical analysis showed increasing nSUV is related to esophagitis severity. Utility of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant gynaecological tumours.

However, the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant gynaecological tumours according to FDG accumulation is unclear. We assessed the maximum standardized uptake value SUVmax and determined its utility in the diagnosis of benign and malignant tumours using a receiver operating characteristic ROC curve analysis.

Among the 63 patients with ovarian tumours, the mean SUVmax of 22 patients with benign ovarian tumours was 2. Immunoglobulin G4 IgG4 -related disease encompasses a wide variety of immune disorders previously thought be distinct. IgG4-related retroperitoneal fibrosis is one such entity. We performed correlation analyses between FDG uptake and intima-media thickness IMT , and soluble biomarkers of inflammation. Characteristics of [ 18 F ] fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in human colon cancer cells.

Cancer tissues are characterized by increased glucose uptake. This study was aimed to compare the glucose uptake and glucose transporter 1 GLUT1 expression in various human colon cancer cells. Dose-response and time-course studies represent that FDG uptake of cancer cells were dose dependent and time dependent. These results represent that FDG uptake into human colon cancer cells are different from each other.

Kang, B. A year-old, neutered male, Maltese dog presented with a three week history of intention tremor, right hind limb rigidity, poor coordination, and occasional circling to the left. On magnetic resonance imaging MRI of the brain, a mass was identified in the right occipital lobe and cerebellum. The FDG-PET demonstrated areas of hypermetabolism in the right occipital lobe, cerebellum, pons, and medulla oblongata.

When the standardized uptake value was calculated, the hypermetabolic lesion was higher than the gray matter values. The dog was definitively diagnosed as a primary histiocytic sarcoma of the brain. This is the first report of PET findings of an intracranial histiocytic sarcoma in a dog.

Urinary bladder diverticular carcinomas are uncommon with a lesser incidence of 0. Cystoscopy is the most reliable method, but evaluating diverticulum with narrow orifices is difficult. Before the initiation of appropriate treatment, proper detection of bladder diverticular carcinoma and its locoregional and distant sites of involvement is necessary.

This review focuses on the use of FDG Clinical impact of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in the diagnosis of neurological diseases. In this review it will be discussed in which neurological disorders positron emission tomography can yield important diagnostic information.

Because positron emission tomography is an expensive method indications have to be cleary defined. One important question concerns the differentiation of tumor recurrence and scar due to radiation therapy or an operation. The grading of brain tumors is another application. In HIV patients fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography can separate lymphoma and toxoplasmosis. In the evaluation of dementia positron emission tomography can help to clarify the differential diagnosis.

Another important area is the presurgical evaluation of epilepsy patients and patients with cerebrovascular disease in whom a surgical revascularization procedure is planned. In extrapyramidal disorders, positron emission tomography can often help to establish the final diagnosis. Regional cerebral metabolic alterations in dementia of the Alzheimer type: positron emission tomography with [ 18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose.

Friedland, R. Alzheimer disease is the most common cause of dementia in adults. Despite recent advances in our understanding of its anatomy and chemistry, we remain largely ignorant of its pathogenesis, physiology, diagnosis, and treatment. Dynamic positron emission tomography using [ 18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose FDG was performed on the Donner crystal ring in 10 subjects with dementia of the Alzheimer type and six healthy age-matched controls.

Ratios comparing mean counts per resolution element in frontal, temporoparietal, and entire cortex regions in brain sections 10 mm thick obtained min following FDG injection showed relatively less FDG uptake in the temporoparietal cortex bilaterally in all the Alzheimer subjects p less than 0. Left-right alterations were less prominent than the anteroposterior changes. This diminished uptake was due to lowered rates of FDG use and suggests that the metabolic effects of Alzheimer disease are most concentrated in the temporoparietal cortex.

Positron emission tomography is a most powerful tool for the noninvasive in vivo assessment of cerebral pathophysiology in dementia. Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The occurrence of granulomatous disease in the setting of Hodgkin's disease is rare; however, when it occurs it can pose significant clinical and diagnostic challenges for physicians treating these patients.

A subsequent biopsy of her post-chemotherapy PET-positive nodes demonstrated sarcoidosis with no evidence of Hodgkin's disease. Advantages of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography in detecting post cardiac surgery infections. Consequently, it is a reliable tool for excluding an infectious phenomenon in case of negativity. We have reported the case of a year-old man who presented with a fever of unknown origin and recurrent septic shocks after a biological Bentall procedure combined with left anterior descending LAD coronary artery revascularization by the left internal thoracic artery.

A year-old female with complaints of gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain, fatigue, vomiting, nausea, and weight loss was diagnosed with neuroendocrine tumor after removal of a 2 mm lesion from the stomach with endoscopic biopsy.

Her magnetic resonance imaging that was performed due to on-going symptoms showed multiple linear hypointense lesions in the liver. Clinical and laboratory findings revealed the final diagnosis as Fasciola hepatica. Full Text Available A year-old female with complaints of gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain, fatigue, vomiting, nausea, and weight loss was diagnosed with neuroendocrine tumor after removal of a 2 mm lesion from the stomach with endoscopic biopsy.

Usefulness of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in follicular lymphoma management. Le Dortz, L. Patients and methods a retrospective study was performed on 45 patients with untreated biopsy-proven follicular lymphoma who underwent F. Poor prognosis was defined as incomplete therapeutic response or early relapse. The median progression free survival P. Her diagnosis was confirmed by liver biopsy. Clinical symptoms of hepatic amyloidosis are generally mild at its first stage, with most frequent findings being hepatomegaly and alkaline phosphatase elevation.

Recent advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology of systemic amyloidosis have made several treatments available. However, its prognosis is occasionally poor. Because liver biopsy is not always safe, other modalities for the diagnosis are needed. Of interest was that fluorodeoxyglucose FDG uptake into the liver was observed, compared with that into the spleen, in this patient, indicating that FDG positron emission tomography and computed tomography might be useful for the diagnosis of hepatic amyloidosis with mild liver dysfunction.

Purpose: To develop a prediction model to identify a low-risk group for distant recurrence in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer treated by concurrent chemoradiation. Methods and Materials: Prospectively, 62 patients with locally advanced cervical cancer were recruited as a training cohort.

Clinical variables and parameters obtained from positron emission tomography PET and magnetic resonance imaging were analyzed by logistic regression. For the test set, 54 patients were recruited independently.

To identify the low-risk group, negative likelihood ratio LR less than 0. Using the two parameters, criteria to determine a low-risk subset for distant recurrence were postulated: 1 FIGO Stage IIB or less and 2 pretreatment SCC cancer who are treated with concurrent chemoradiation. Conventional imaging included the following: bone scintigraphy; chest X-ray in Results: Distant metastases were observed in nine patients On patient-based analysis, conventional imaging identified distant metastases in all 9 patients.

Comparison of primary tumour volumes delineated on four-dimensional computed tomography maximum intensity projection and 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography computed tomography images of non-small cell lung cancer.

Results and Conclusions. Background Carcinoma of unknown primary CUP encompasses a heterogeneous group of tumors with varying clinical features. The management of patients of CUP remains a clinical challenge. Methods One hundred and forty-nine patients with histologically-proven metastases of CUP were included.

For all patients,the conventional diagnostic work-up was unsuccessful in localizing the primary site. Results In Forty-seven The two sets of findings were compared both at baseline and during follow-up. Serial HRCT and pulmonary function tests were used to evaluate outcome in patients with lung involvement.

PET-CT showed additional lesions in seven patients, mostly involving bones, and differentiated inactive from active lesions. PET was undertaken within 1 week after computed tomography CT. Clinical impacts of additional PET were determined on a scan basis. A total of 14 patients were recruited. Sixteen PET scans were performed, with one patient having three serial studies.

Benefits of additional PET were seen in 7 of 16 On the other hand, in two instances there were false-negative PET findings, six scans yielded no benefit, and one showed an indeterminate lesion. The use of molecular sieves to simulate hot lesions in 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose--positron emission tomography imaging.

We investigated the use of a kind of zeolite, the Bowie chabazite, to produce radioactive sources of different shapes, dimensions and activity concentrations that can be used for lesion simulation in positron emission tomography PET imaging. The 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose 18 F-FDG uptake of a group of 12 zeolites was studied as a function of their weight , mg and of the activity concentration of the 18 F-FDG solution MBq ml -1 , using a multiple linear regression model.

The reproducibility, homogeneity and stability over time of the 18 F-FDG uptake were assessed. This relation allows the production of zeolites of a desired 18 F-FDG activity using knowledge of the concentration of the soaking solution and the weight of the zeolite.

The almost complete regeneration of the zeolites allows us to reuse them in successive experiments. The stability of the 18 F-FDG uptake on zeolites is far from ideal. When placed in a saline solution the 'activated' zeolites release the 18 F-FDG with an effective half-time of 53 min.

The sealing of the zeolites in plastic film bags has been demonstrated to be effective in preventing any release of 18 F-FDG. These features, together with their variable dimensions and shapes, make them ideal 18 F-FDG sources with a fixed target-to-background ratio that can be placed anywhere in a phantom to study lesion detectability in PET imaging.

Influence of [ 18 F ] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography on salvage treatment decision making for locally persistent nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of [ 18 F ] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography FDG-PET in influencing salvage treatment decision making for locally persistent nasopharyngeal carcinoma NPC. The salvage treatment decisions, with regard to the decision to offer salvage treatment and the definition of gross tumor volume GTV , were made before knowledge of the FDG-PET findings.

Spontaneous remission was observed in repeat biopsies and no local recurrence was found in these 4 cases. Conclusion: Use of FDG-PET was found to influence the salvage treatment decision making for locally persistent NPC by identifying patients who were not likely to benefit from additional treatment and by improving accuracy of GTV definition in salvage treatment planning.

A computed tomography-based spatial normalization for the analysis of [ 18 F ] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography of the brain. We developed a new computed tomography CT -based spatial normalization method and CT template to demonstrate its usefulness in spatial normalization of positron emission tomography PET images with [ 18 F ] fluorodeoxyglucose FDG PET studies in healthy controls.

T1-weighted magnetic resonance MR images were acquired for all subjects. The skull-stripped MR and CT images were spatially normalized to each structural template. PET images were spatially normalized by applying spatial transformation parameters to normalize skull-stripped MR and CT images. All three spatial normalization methods underestimated regional SUV values by 0. The CT-based method showed slightly greater underestimation bias.

Regional SUV values derived from all three spatial normalization methods were correlated significantly p normalization may be an alternative method for structure-based spatial normalization of [ 18 F] FDG PET when MR imaging is unavailable. The role of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in gestational trophoblastic tumours: a pilot study. Our preliminary results suggest that 18 F-FDG PET is potentially useful in selected patients with GTT by providing precise mapping of metastases and tumour extent upfront, by monitoring treatment response and by localising viable tumours after chemotherapy.

In these patients, the diagnoses could not be confirmed using conventional modalities. The patients' clinical courses were retrospectively reviewed. On the basis of surgical, microbiological and clinical follow-up findings, the aortic grafts were considered infected in 4 patients and not infected in 5. All 4 patients with graft infection root: 2 cases, arch: 1 case and descending: 1 case eventually underwent in situ re-replacement.

Two of the 4 patients also had abdominal grafts; however, only the thoracic grafts were replaced because uptake was low around the abdominal grafts. The maximal standardized uptake value SUVmax in the perigraft area was higher in the infected group than in the non-infected group An SUVmax value greater than 8 around a graft suggests the presence of graft infection.

This is especially useful if multiple separated prosthetic grafts have been implanted. The use of molecular sieves to simulate hot lesions in 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography imaging. The 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose 18 F-FDG uptake of a group of 12 zeolites was studied as a function of their weight mg and of the activity concentration of the 18 F-FDG solution MBq ml -1 , using a multiple linear regression model.

The clinical problem in suspected aortoiliac graft infection AGI is to obtain proof of infection. Sixteen patients were suspected to have an AGI group I. AGI was considered proven only in the case of a positive bacterial culture. Positive cultures were found in 10 of the 16 patients group Ia , and in the other six patients, cultures remained negative group Ib.

The objective of this retrospective study was to examine the feasibility and utility of 18 F-FDG uptake heterogeneity characterized by textural features to diagnose AGI. Textural features of "1"8F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scanning in diagnosing aortic prosthetic graft infection. Although "1"8F-fluorodeoxyglucose "1"8F-FDG positron emission tomography scanning PET has been suggested to play a pivotal role, an evidence-based interpretation is lacking.

The objective of this retrospective study was to examine the feasibility and utility of "1"8F-FDG uptake heterogeneity characterized by textural features to diagnose AGI. SUVmax was found predictive. We report the contrast-enhanced computed tomography CT and 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography findings in adrenal histoplasmosis and candidiasis. Both demonstrated bilateral hypermetabolic heterogeneous adrenal masses with limited wash-out on delayed CT.

Adrenal candidiasis has not been previously reported, nor have the CT wash-out findings in either infection. The adrenal imaging findings are indistinguishable from malignancy, which is more common; but in this setting, physicians should be alert to the differential diagnosis of fungal infections, since it can be equally deadly. Published by Elsevier Inc. Timmers, Henri J.

Background Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas PPGLs are rare tumors of the adrenal medulla and extra-adrenal sympathetic chromaffin tissues; their anatomical and functional imaging are critical to guiding treatment decisions. Methods A total of patients men, women, aged Sensitivity and specificity were measured as endpoints and compared by the McNemar test, using two-sided P values only. Mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor EGFR gene have been identified as potential targets for the treatment and prognostic factors for non small cell lung cancer NSCLC.

A total of patients with pathologically confirmed NSCLC were enrolled 99 males and 64 females; median age, 60 years. The maximum standardized uptake value SUVmax of the primary lung cancer was measured and normalized with regard to liver uptake. EGFR mutations were found in 57 patients The SUVmax tended to be higher in wild type than mutant tumors, but was not significantly different There was no significant difference in survival according to SUVmax.

Both OS and progression free survival of patients with a mutation in exon 19 were significant longer than in patients with wild type tumors. Analysis of gene expression profiles of hepatocellular carcinomas with regard to 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake pattern on positron emission tomography.

In this study, the gene expression profiles of hepatocellular carcinomas HCCs were evaluated to determine whether HCCs with high 18 F-FDG uptake have more aggressive biological potential than those with low uptake. Surgical specimens were obtained from ten patients with HCC six males and four females, age range years. The gene expression profiles were evaluated using an oligoDNA microarray.

The HCCs with high 18 F-FDG uptake showed increased expression of 11 genes - including vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, vinexin beta and core 1 UDP-galactose: N-acetylgalactosamine-alpha-R-beta 1,3-galactosyltransferase and the natural killer cell inhibitory receptor - compared to those with low uptake p 18 F-FDG uptake appear to have more aggressive biological properties than those with low uptake.

The ability to distinguish malignant from benign retroperitoneal fibrosis RPF and to select patients who are likely to respond to steroid treatment using a noninvasive test would be a major step forward in the management of patients with RPF. Management was based on the findings from these investigations.

Median follow-up was 16 mo. This technique can distinguish cancer from noncancerous RPF, and may be better than blood tests in assessing and monitoring RPF. It also appears to predict a patient's response to steroids, which should allow more individualised treatment. A case of skeletal tuberculosis and psoas abscess: disease activity evaluated using 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography.

Psoas abscess complicating tuberculous spondylitis is a rare morbidity in extrapulmonary tuberculosis. There are no established guidelines for evaluating the clinical response of psoas abscess. Although several studies have shown that positron emission tomography-computed tomography with 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose can play a potential role in diagnosing multifocal tuberculosis and monitoring the clinical response of pulmonary tuberculosis, to our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that positron emission tomography-computed tomography is useful for evaluating local inflammation and disease activity of a tuberculous psoas abscess.

We report a case of multifocal bone and lymph node tuberculosis with concomitant lumbar psoas abscess in a year-old man, along with a literature review. An initial positron emission tomography-computed tomography scan showed intense 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose accumulation in the sternum, ribs, vertebrae, and lymph nodes. The patient was successfully treated with antitubercular agents and computed tomography-guided drainage therapy. A follow-up positron emission tomography-computed tomography after abscess drainage and 9 months of antitubercular drug treatment revealed that the majority of lesions improved; however, protracted inflammation surrounding the psoas abscess was still observed.

These results indicate that disease activity of psoas abscess can remain, even after successful drainage and antitubercular medication regime of appropriate duration. We have successfully followed up the extent of skeletal tuberculosis complicated with psoas abscess by positron emission tomography-computed tomography. In this patient, positron emission tomography-computed tomography is useful for evaluating the disease activity of tuberculous psoas abscess and for assessing the appropriate duration of antitubercular drug therapy in psoas abscess.

To date, anatomical imaging modalities of the pelvis and tumor markers have been the mainstay of surveillance for recurrent ovary cancer. CA level was available in all patients. Confirmation was available through re-operation or biopsy in 26 cases, and clinical assessment with series of follow-up images in The combined PET and CT scan provides more accurate detection of tumors by providing the functional and anatomic information simultaneously, 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET-CT has clinical value in localizing primary tumor, staging before treatment, monitoring the residual and recurrent diseases after radiotherapy and providing biological target volume to radiation treatment planning.

Prodigious efforts and landmark discoveries have led toward significant advances in our understanding of atherosclerosis. Despite significant efforts, atherosclerosis continues globally to be a leading cause of mortality and reduced quality of life. With surges in the prevalence of obesity and diabetes, atherosclerosis is expected to have an even more pronounced impact upon the global burden of disease.

It is imperative to develop strategies for the early detection of disease. Positron emission tomography PET imaging utilizing [ 18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose FDG may provide a non-invasive means of characterizing inflammatory activity within atherosclerotic plaque, thus serving as a surrogate biomarker for detecting vulnerable plaque.

The aim of this review is to explore the rationale for performing FDG imaging, provide an overview into the mechanism of action, and summarize findings from the early application of FDG PET imaging in the clinical setting to evaluate vascular disease. Alternative imaging biomarkers and approaches are briefly discussed. Materials and Methods The study was approved by the institutional review board.

Patients gave written informed consent. Static and parametric images of glucose metabolic rate were obtained to determine lesion volumes by using three delineation strategies. Whole tumor and regional rate constants and blood volume fraction V B were computed by using compartment modeling. Results Pathology volumes were larger than PET volumes median difference, 8. Differences in glycolytic rate and V B between SCC and AC are relevant for research in targeting agents and radiation therapy dose escalation.

Up to now, experience with this very new tracer is limited. All patients except one were operated on. MTO imaging clearly distinguished cortical from non-cortical adrenal masses median standardised uptake values of Epstein-Barr virus-associated gastric cancer EBVaGC is one of the four molecular subtypes of gastric cancer , as defined by the classification recently proposed by The Cancer Genome Atlas. We analyzed the correlation between EBV positivity, clinicopathologic features and metabolic activity of the primary tumor.

A total of patients were included and 15 7. Age, gender, tumor location, and histological type showed no significant differences between EBV-positive and negative groups. The infection status of EBV was significantly related to the 18 F-FDG uptake of primary tumors in patients with advanced gastric cancer.

George J. Delinasios , All rights reserved. Full Text Available Context: The results of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose FDG-PET imaging carried out with the current standard techniques for assessment of urinary tract cancers have been reported to be less than satisfactory because of the urinary excretion of the tracer.

Materials and Methods: Twenty-nine patients with invasive cancer of the urinary bladder were included in this study. Patients were divided into two groups: Group I 22 patients included cases with invasive bladder cancer who had not undergone cystectomy and group II seven patients included cases with invasive bladder cancer who had undergone cystectomy and urinary diversion procedure. Additional delayed images were acquired min after IV furosemide and oral hydration.

Results: The technique was successful in achieving adequate washout of urinary FDG and overcame the problems posed by the excess FDG in the urinary tract. Hypermetabolic lesions could be easily detected by PET and precisely localized to the bladder wall, perivesical region and pelvic lymph nodes. The results of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose FDG -PET imaging carried out with the current standard techniques for assessment of urinary tract cancers have been reported to be less than satisfactory because of the urinary excretion of the tracer.

Twenty-nine patients with invasive cancer of the urinary bladder were included in this study. The technique was successful in achieving adequate washout of urinary FDG and overcame the problems posed by the excess FDG in the urinary tract.

The value of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography for prediction of treatment response in gastrointestinal stromal tumors: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Early detection of response to treatment is critically important in gastrointestinal stromal tumors GIST. Therefore, the present systematic review and meta-analysis assessed the value of 18 f-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography 18 FDG-PET on prediction of therapeutic response of GIST patients to systemic treatments.

Finally, 21 relevant articles were included. Correlation of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake on positron emission tomography with Ki index and pathological invasive area in lung adenocarcinomas 30 mm or less in size. Tumors were classified as air-type or solid-type based on TS-CT findings. In all resected specimens, diameter of the pathological invasive area and Ki index were assessed. Results: SUVmax was significantly lower for air-type than for solid-type tumors 0.

Conclusions: SUVmax correlated significantly with Ki index and diameter of the pathological invasive area. The present results suggest the potential role of FDG-PET in predicting adenocarcinomas with invasive characteristics. Langerhans cell histiocytosis LCH is a rare clonal proliferative disease, with an incidence rate of 4. LCH encompasses a spectrum of disorders with diverse clinical presentations ranging from a single organ to multiple organ involvement.

LCH rarely involves the thyroid gland. We presented a case with LCH of thyroid gland. The patient had painless progressive neck enlargement and then diabetes insipidus. Ultrasonic scan and magnetic resonance imaging scan revealed nodular goiter and pituitary stalk enlargement, respectively. Histopathological analysis revealed features of histiocytoid cells.

Fluorodeoxyglucose FDG positron emission tomography PET has become the common imaging modality in oncological practice. FDG uptake is seen in brown adipose tissue in a significant number of patients.

Patients with histologically proven lymphoma were enrolled in this prospective, institutional review board-approved study. Thirty-four patients with a total of 40 examinations were included. Quantification of the activity of tritium produced during the routine synthesis of 18 F fluorodeoxyglucose for positron emission tomography.

Gamma emitting radioactive by-products generated during the cyclotron irradiation of 18 O labelled water by protons to produce 18 FDG fluorodeoxyglucose for positron emission tomography are well characterised. However, the production of tritium 3 H through the 18 O p,t 16 O nuclear reaction has not been investigated in detail. The aim of this study was to measure tritium activity produced during a large number of 18 FDG production runs in order to obtain a better perspective on its impact on radioactive waste management, particularly as regards storage and disposal.

Tritium was assayed by liquid scintillation counting in recovered 18 O water from 24 separate production runs. The mean SD values of activity and activity concentration were 20 kBq and 81 8 kBq ml -1 respectively. Both quantities were positively correlated with the activity of 18 F. Tritium was detected in much lower concentration in water used to rinse the target vessel. The activity of tritium is such that it is exempt from regulatory control and may be combined with bulk non-active waste for disposal as Very Low Level Waste.

However, variations in the irradiation conditions or the procedures for the collection of recovered water might result in its classification as Low Level Waste, necessitating a more complex disposal regime. PET with 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose for staging of non-small cell lung cancer. Aims: To evaluate studies on the use of positron emission tomography with the glucose analog 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose FDG-PET for the preoperative staging of patients with non-small cell lung cancer NSCLC according to the criteria of evidence based medicine and to discuss the cost-effectiveness of the technique.

Methods: Clinical studies published between and on the preoperative staging of non-small cell lung cancer were used for this analysis. Since systematic analyses also indicate a favourable cost-effectiveness ratio FDG-PET has to be considered as 'strictly indicated' for the preoperative staging of a non-small cell lung cancer. This study was aimed at assessing cardiac FDG PET in rats pre-medicated with acipimox, a potent nicotinic acid derivative yielding comparable image quality to clamping in man.

Metabolic conditioning was compared in Wistar rats between a conventional oral glucose loading 1. TA patients were classified as active disease, inactive disease and possible active disease. We analyzed the correlation between pSUV and invasiveness, lesion size, and the histologic factors of invasive ductal carcinoma IDC.

Timely identification of septic foci is critical in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock of unknown origin. Seventeen patients were prospectively included, all on mechanical ventilation and 14 under vasopressor drugs. Visual and semiquantitative analysis of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography using a partial-ring tomograph without attenuation correction to differentiate benign and malignant pulmonary nodules.

Many studies have reported the use of attenuation-corrected positron emission tomography with 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose FDG PET with full-ring tomographs to differentiate between benign and malignant pulmonary nodules. A retrospective review of PET images from 77 patients range years of age with proven benign or malignant pulmonary nodules was undertaken. Images were visually graded on a 5-point scale from 'definitely malignant' to 'definitely benign,' and lesion-to-background LB ratios were calculated using region of interest analysis.

Visual and semiquantitative analyses were compared using receiver operating characteristic analysis. Twenty lesions were benign and 57 were malignant. The mean LB ratio for benign lesions was 1. The mean tumour SUVmax was 4. In ccRCC and pRCC tumours, high-grade tumours had a significantly greater SUVmax p Prognostic value of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma with pathologically positive neck lymph node.

Thirty-six Follow-up ranged from 20 to months median, 56 months. However, there was no impact of neck node standardized uptake value SUV max on clinical outcomes. Comparison with 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose for imaging and evaluation of tumor aggressiveness. The AC and FDG uptakes were examined to determine the relationship with tumor aggressiveness, id est i. Jain, Avani S. To assess the diagnostic utility of contrast-enhanced 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography FDG PET-ceCT in localization of tumors in patients with clinical diagnosis of tumor-induced osteomalacia TIO , in correlation with histopathological results.

Eight patients five male and three female aged 24—60 mean 42 years with a clinical diagnosis of TIO were included in this prospective study. Hemangiopericytoma was the most common reported histology. All patients underwent surgery, following which they demonstrated clinical improvement. The tumors causing TIO are small in size and usually located in obscure sites in the body. Once the tumor is localized, regional magnetic resonance imaging can be performed for better characterization of soft tissue lesion.

Area-under-the-curve AUC values were compared among the four parameters using a nonparametric method. However, they are not routinely performed because their use is time-consuming. Cases presenting lung or liver uptakes were analyzed.

Lesion location and quantitative parameters were recorded and compared. Considering the lesions, and 43 were located in the lungs and the liver, respectively. To evaluate the potential and correlation between near-infrared fluorescence NIRF imaging using cyanine 5. We used 10 CIA and 3 normal mice. Nine days after the injecting collagen twice, microPET imaging was performed 40 minutes after the intravenous injection of 9.

We assessed the correlation between these two modalities in the knees and ankles of CIA mice. Moreover, both HGC-Cy5. As such, HGC-Cy5. Results: Twenty-seven patients with a median age of 12 years were included; 11 had Hodgkin's disease and 16 had non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

Three patients had confirmed lymph node follicular hyperplasia by biopsy, while all 27 patients achieved disease-free survival during the follow-up period. The maximum standardized uptake values SUV max of cervical lymph nodes were 2. Bilateral cervical lymph node hyperplasia was symmetrical in terms of both the SUV max and affected locations.

Thymic hyperplasia and nasopharyngeal lymphoid hyperplasia were both observed in 24 patients There was no relationship in terms of the SUV max between cervical lymph nodes and thymic tissue, cervical nodes or nasopharyngeal lymphoid tissue. Comparative study of Tl reinjection tomography and combined use of 13N-ammonia and 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography for detection of viable myocardium. Objective: To compare the clinical value of Tl reinjection tomography and combined use of 13 N-ammonia NH 3 regional myocardial perfusion and 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose FDG positron emission tomography transfer function and for the myocardium.

Vertical and horizontal long axis cuts were divided into nine segments, and uptakes of radioisotope were evaluated into four classes visually Defect score, DS 0:normal uptake, 3:severely reduced. Quantitative evaluation was performed on the vertical and horizontal long axis cuts of Tl redistribution, reinjection and FDG PET images using regions of interest.

Of 24 segments with severe irreversible defects on the Tl redistribution imaging, Prognostic value of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma with pathologically positive neck lymph node. Hu, Ying-Ying, E-mail: huyy sysucc. Brix, G. Fourteen women with suspicious breast lesions were examined. The MRI data were acquired with a turbo fast low-angle shot sequence and analyzed using a pharmacokinetic model.

Emission data were detected in the sensitive 3D modus, iteratively reconstructed, and superimposed onto corresponding transmission images. In the 14 patients, 13 breast masses with a suspicious contrast enhancement and FDG uptake were detected. For these lesions, no statistically significant correlation between evaluated MR and PET parameters was found. Two inflammatory lesions were concordantly classified as cancer. Moreover, dynamic MRI yielded another false-positive finding. Although both functional imaging techniques provide independent tissue information, the results concerning the diagnosis of primary breast lesions were almost identical.

An advantage of PET, however, is its ability to localize lymph node involvement and distant metastases as an integral part of the examination. It was the aim of this methodology-oriented clinical pilot study to compare the potential of dynamic MRI and 2-[ 18 F]fluorodeoxy-D-glucose FDG positron emission tomography PET for the detection and characterization of breast cancer.

Leseur, J. Patients and methods. The performances of FDG-PET for lymph node detection relatively to the lymph node dissection have been described sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value. PET tumour parameters analyzed were: maximum standard uptake value SUV max , the volume and the maximum diameter.

The prognostic and predictive values of these parameters were investigated. The tumour response was evaluated on surgical specimens. Prostate cancer is a major public health problem in developed countries. The remarkable biological and clinical heterogeneity of prostate cancer provides unique opportunities as well as challenges for the diagnostic imaging evaluation of this prevalent disease.

The disease is characterized by a natural history that ranges from localized slowly growing hormone-dependent tumor progressing to metastatic hormone-refractory disease. PET is an ideal imaging tool for noninvasive interrogation of the underlying tumor biology. FDG uptake in prostate cancer depends on tumor differentiation with low accumulation in well-differentiated tumors and high uptake in aggressive poorly differentiated tumors.

Cumulative current evidence suggests that FDG PET may be useful in detection of disease in a small fraction of patients with biochemical recurrence, in the imaging evaluation of extent and treatment response in metastatic disease and in prediction of patient outcome. Positron emission tomography response criteria in solid tumours criteria for quantitative analysis of [ 18 F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography with integrated computed tomography for treatment response assessment in metastasised solid tumours: All that glitters is not gold.

For solid tumours, quantitative analysis of [ 18 F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography with integrated computed tomography potentially can have significant value in early response assessment and thereby discrimination between responders and non-responders at an early stage of treatment. Standardised strategies for this analysis have been proposed, and the positron emission tomography response criteria in solid tumours PERCIST criteria can be regarded as the current standard to perform quantitative analysis in a research setting, yet is not implemented in daily practice.

In this article, we point out dilemmas that arise when applying proposed criteria like PERCIST on an expansive set of patients with metastasised solid tumours. Clinicians and scientists should be aware of these limitations to prevent that methodological issues impede successful introduction of research data into clinical practice.

Therefore, to deliver on the high potential of quantitative imaging, consensus should be reached on a standardised, feasible and clinically useful analysis methodology. This methodology should be applicable in the majority of patients, tumour types and treatments. The added value of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography computed tomography in patients with neck lymph node metastases from an unknown primary malignancy. The search for a primary malignancy in patients with a metastatic cervical lymph node is challenging yet ultimately of utmost clinical importance.

This study evaluated the efficacy of positron emission tomography computed tomography in detecting the occult primary, within the context of a tertiary referral centre head and neck cancer multidisciplinary team tumour board meeting. Thirty-two patients 23 men and 9 women; mean and median age, 61 years with a metastatic cervical lymph node of unknown primary origin, after clinical examination and magnetic resonance imaging, underwent positron emission tomography computed tomography.

Combining these results with those of 10 earlier studies of similar patients gave an overall detection rate of 37 per cent. Positron emission tomography computed tomography has become an important imaging modality. To date, it has the highest primary tumour detection rate, for head and neck cancer patients presenting with cervical lymph node metastases from an unknown primary.

Positron emission tomography PET with fluorinelabeled fluorodeoxyglucose 18 F-FDG has been used for the staging and evaluation of recurrence in cancer patients. A year-old male patient with chondrosarcoma of the left iliac bone underwent radical resection, metal brace implanting and radiotherapy.

High-resolution 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging for pituitary adenoma detection in Cushing disease. Imaging findings were correlated to operative and histological findings. Louis, Missouri United States. Local-regional failure was defined as failure within the treated RT volume and reported by the treating institution.

Statistical analyses included Wilcoxon signed rank test, Kaplan-Meier curves log rank test , and Cox proportional hazards regression modeling. Further evaluation by peripheral smear examination revealed malaria. This report highlights that in endemic regions malaria can cause 18 F-FDG avid splenomegaly and might mimic relapse of lymphoma.

Adenocarcinoma cervix is an uncommon histological subtype of carcinoma cervix; further incidence of skeletal muscle metastases is even rarer. We report the identification of extensive fluorodeoxyglucose FDG avid metastatic skeletal muscle deposits in a known case of adenocarcinoma cervix.

The largest lesion representative of muscle deposit in the right deltoid was histopathologically confirmed to be metastatic poorly differentiated carcinoma. A positron emission tomography analysis of glucose metabolism in Alzheimer's disease brain using [ 18 F ] fluorodeoxyglucose. A parallel study with elemental concentrations.

Alzheimer's disease AD is a debilitating form of dementia which leads to impaired memory, thinking and behavior. Elemental concentrations between 'normal' and AD subjects as well as the hemispherical differences within the brain were examined. Tissue samples from both hemispheres of the frontal lobe in both AD and normal subjects were examined for their trace element concentrations using PIXE and RBS analyses. Elemental concentrations were seen to differ between AD and normal brain tissue samples.

While in the normal group concentrations were found to be significantly higher in the right hemisphere than in the left the converse was tru in AD. A change in elemental concentrations may indicate possible alterations in the function of the blood brain barrier. This was examined by determining regional cerebral metabolic rates of glucose rCMRGlu using the in vivo technique of positron emission tomography PET.

Again variations between both hemispheres and between AD and normal were found. Contrast-enhanced [ 18 F ] fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography-computed tomography as an initial imaging modality in patients presenting with metastatic malignancy of undefined primary origin. Patients who were thoroughly evaluated for primary or primary tumor was detected by any other investigation were excluded from the analysis.

Totally, patients with pathological diagnosis of malignancy but no apparent sites of the primary tumor were finally selected for analysis. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the study were Use of contrast improves the diagnostic utility of modality as well as help in staging of the primary tumor.

Tauro, A. Full text: FDG-PET studies of brain tumours to measure tumour activity are well established, with regions of higher grade tumour utilising more glucose compared to lower grade tumour tissue and normal tissue. FDG uptake in tumour cells may reflect anaerobic glycolysis, but this has not been proven in- vivo.

FMISO is a novel positron -emitting compound that has been shown to selectively identify hypoxic but viable tissue, which may contribute to chemoradiotherapy resistance in tumour cells. Studies correlating measurements of regional hypoxia and glucose activity within brain tumours prior to therapy may help gain further insight into the relationship between hypoxic tumour tissue and resistance to chemoradiotherapy.

All gliomas demonstrated areas of FMISO uptake, which corresponded to areas of maximal FDG uptake, indicating a correlation between hypoxic areas within tumour with areas of increased glucose metabolic activity. This supports the hypothesis that hypoxic areas within tumour tissue may be associated with increased FDG uptake, although whether hypoxia itself increases FDG uptake remains controversial.

These correlative studies characterising areas of hypoxia and glucose activity should hopefully assist in future therapeutic manipulations to improve the outcome from treatment of primary brain tumours. The role of positron emission tomography with 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose integrated with computed tomography in the evaluation of patients with multiple myeloma undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

The number, the maximum standard uptake value SUV , and the location medullary or extramedullary of focal lesions FLs were recorded and investigated as predictors of progression-free survival PFS and overall survival OS by univariate and multivariate analyses. Multivariate analysis of post-treatment variables showed that persistence of EMD and failure to obtain complete response or very good partial response after allo-SCT were strongly associated with shorter PFS and OS.

Haznedar, Rauf; Aki, Sahika Z. A total of 61 newly diagnosed patients 55 MM and 6 plasmacytoma were enrolled in the study [37 men and 24 women with a median age of 57 years range years ]. Conventional non-invasive imaging modalities of atherosclerosis such as coronary artery calcium CAC and carotid intimal medial thickness C-IMT provide information about the burden of disease. However, despite multiple validation studies of CAC, and C-IMT, these modalities do not accurately assess plaque characteristics, and the composition and inflammatory state of the plaque determine its stability and, therefore, the risk of clinical events.

The current methodology for quantification of FDG uptake in atherosclerotic plaque involves measurement of the standardized uptake value SUV of an artery of interest and of the venous blood pool in order to calculate a target to background ratio TBR , which is. All enrolled patients were unsuccessfully studied, within the previous month, with physical examination, laboratory tests and conventional diagnostic procedures. After PET study, the minimum follow-up period for the inclusion in the studied population was 3 months.

In 5 cases, FDG-PET scan did not identify a primary pathological focus, which was subsequently detected by other diagnostic methods within 3 months. In 39 patients , The detection of occult cancer in patients suspected of having a paraneoplastic neurological syndrome PNS poses a diagnostic challenge. The aim of our study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the diagnostic performance of FDG PET for the detection of occult malignant disease responsible for PNS. Delete Report?

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The peoples' climate vote was conducted from October 7 to December 4 by distributing poll questions through adverts in popular mobile gaming apps. The vast majority of people want to see governments do everything necessary - urgently - to tackle the climate crisis. High income countries and small islands were the most likely to support urgent action, although all countries wanted to see urgent action taken to tackle the emergency.

More than 30 million invites to the survey were issued to people in 50 countries when they played games such as Words With Friends, Angry Birds or Dragon City. Results were included from 1. The findings were then weighted by polling experts at Oxford University to be as representative as possible for each country.

UNDP administrator Achim Steiner said the results clearly show urgent action to tackle climate change has broad support amongst people around the world. Support is there cross nationalities, age, gender and education level - including evidence that 'people want their policymakers to tackle the crisis,' said Steiner. Prof Stephen Fisher, from the Department of Sociology at Oxford, said it was the biggest ever survey of public opinion on climate change.

Adding that it has shown that 'mobile gaming networks can not only reach a lot of people, they can engage different kinds of people in a diverse group of countries. We've also found that most people clearly want a strong and wide-raging policy response. The Paris Agreement, which was first signed in , is an international agreement to control and limit climate change. It seems the more ambitious goal of restricting global warming to 1. In June , President Trump announced his intention for the US, the second largest producer of greenhouse gases in the world, to withdraw from the agreement.

The Paris Agreement on Climate Change has four main goals with regards to reducing emissions:. Source: European Commission. The views expressed in the contents above are those of our users and do not necessarily reflect the views of MailOnline. Young children CAN follow social distancing rules: Covid mitigation measures reduced close in-person contacts in primary schools by 53 per cent, study shows. Argos AO. Privacy Policy Feedback.

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Microbial Genomics , 4 7 Transcriptomic studies of malaria: a paradigm for investigation of systemic host-pathogen interactions. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews , 82 2 e , e - The Lancet Child and Adolescent Health , 2 6 , - Chiron: Translating nanopore raw signal directly into nucleotide sequence using deep learning.

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Nature Communications , 8 1 , Genetic variation in the SLC8A1 calcium signaling pathway is associated with susceptibility to Kawasaki disease and coronary artery abnormalities. Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics , 9 6 , - Natural resistance to meningococcal disease related to CFH loci: meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies.

Scientific Reports , 6 1 , Herberg, Jethro A. Diagnostic test accuracy of a 2-transcript host RNA signature for discriminating bacterial vs viral infection in febrile children. The Journal of the American Medical Association , 8 , - Streaming algorithms for identification of pathogens and antibiotic resistance potential from real-time MinION TM sequencing.

Gigascience , 5 1 32 , Poznik, G. Tyler-Smith, Chris Punctuated bursts in human male demography inferred from 1, worldwide Y-chromosome sequences. Nature Genetics , 48 6 , - Elliott, Alysha G. Complete Genome Sequence of Klebsiella quasipneumoniae subsp. Genome Announcements , 4 3 e Li, Jun , Woods, Susan L. Chenevix-Trench, Georgia Point mutations in Exon 1B of APC reveal gastric adenocarcinoma and proximal polyposis of the stomach as a familial adenomatous polyposis variant.

American Journal of Human Genetics , 98 5 , - Bioinformatics , 32 5 , - A global reference for human genetic variation. Nature , , 68 - Nucleic Acids Research , 42 20 , e - e Genetic variability in the regulation of gene expression in ten regions of the human brain. Nature Neuroscience , 17 10 , - Bellos, Evangelos and Coin, Lachlan J. Bioinformatics , 30 17 , i - i Colonna, V. Peterson, J.

Human genomic regions with exceptionally high levels of population differentiation identified from whole-genome sequences. Genome Biology , 15 6 R88 doi: Anderson, Suzanne T. Anthony G. Diagnosis of childhood tuberculosis and host RNA expression in Africa. New England Journal of Medicine , 18 , - YHap: A population model for probabilistic assignment of Y haplogroups from re-sequencing data. BMC Bioinformatics , 14 1 , PLoS One , 8 10 e , e Demographic and motor features associated with the occurrence of neuropsychiatric and sleep complications of Parkinson's disease.

Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry , 84 8 , - Brown, Matthew A. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies ten loci influencing allergic sensitization. Nature Genetics , 45 8 , - A new scoring system derived from base excess and platelet count at presentation predicts mortality in paediatric meningococcal sepsis.

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PLoS Medicine , 10 2 e , e A population model for genotyping indels from next-generation sequence data. Nucleic Acids Research , 41 3 , e Kaforou, Myrsini , Wright, Victoria J. Detection of tuberculosis in HIV-infected and -uninfected African adults using whole blood RNA expression signatures: a case-control study.

PLoS Medicine , 10 10 e , e Seich al Basatena N. The effect of genomic inversions on estimation of population genetic parameters from SNP data. Genetics , 1 , - Bellos, Evangelos , Johnson, Michael R. Genome Biology , 13 An integrated map of genetic variation from 1, human genomes.

Nature , , 56 - Bellos, Evangelos , Coin, Lachlan J. Bioinformatics: living on the edge. Okada, Y. Gieger, C. Meta-analysis identifies multiple loci associated with kidney function-related traits in east Asian populations. Nature Genetics , 44 8 , - Highly interconnected genes in disease-specific networks are enriched for disease-associated polymorphisms. Genome Biology , 13 6 R46 , R Taal, H. Arfan , Beilin, Lawrence J. Middeldorp, Christel Common variants at 12q15 and 12q24 are associated with infant head circumference.

Nature Genetics , 44 5 , - O'Reilly, Paul F. Novel loci for adiponectin levels and their influence on type 2 diabetes and metabolic traits: A multi-ethnic meta-analysis of 45, individuals. PloS Genetics , 8 3 e , e Palmer, Nicholette D. Sandy , Hester, Jessica M. Mooser, Vincent A genome-wide association search for type 2 diabetes genes in African Americans. Ikram, M. Rob , Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O. Common variants at 6q22 and 17q21 are associated with intracranial volume.

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The purpose of this phase II study was to determine the safety and efficacy of TheraSphere treatment 90Y microspheres in patients with liver-dominant colorectal metastases in whom standard therapies had failed or were judged to be inappropriate. Twenty-seven patients with unresectable hepatic colorectal metastases were treated at a targeted absorbed dose of Gy.

Survival from first treatment was estimated with use of the Kaplan-Meier method. With the exception of these three patients whose sequelae were not considered to be related to treatment, all observed toxicities were transient and resolved without medical intervention. TheraSphere administration appears to provide stabilization of liver disease with minimal toxicity in patients in whom standard systemic chemotherapy regimens have failed.

Textural features of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scanning in diagnosing aortic prosthetic graft infection. Saleem, Ben R. Background: The clinical problem in suspected aortoiliac graft infection AGI is to obtain proof of infection.

Although 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose 18F-FDG positron emission tomography scanning PET has been suggested to play a pivotal role, an evidence-based interpretation is lacking. The objective. Although 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose 18 F-FDG positron emission tomography scanning PET has been suggested to play a pivotal role, an evidence-based interpretation is lacking.

The study was powered to estimate the precision of the individual imaging tests. Images were visually interpreted using a four-point assessment scale, and readers were blinded to other test results. The reference standard was biopsy along with treatment decisions and clinical follow-up median, 17 months.

For distant recurrence, the area under the receiver operating curve was 0. It allowed for distant recurrence to be correctly ruled out and resulted in only a small number of false-positive cases. Between and , patients diagnosed with HCC at seven hospitals were enrolled. Among these, patients underwent curative treatments including resection, liver transplantation, and radiofrequency ablation.

TACE was performed in patients. The prognostic significance of TLR and other clinical variables was assessed using Cox regression models. Differences in the overall survival OS associated with TLR or other significant clinical factors were examined using the Kaplan-Meier method. Over a median follow-up period of 46 months, 77 patients died from cancer.

The VR ranged from 0. Median follow-up was Of the non-pCR patients, 9 relapsed at 3 years. The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose FDG positron emission tomography PET in predicting tumor response to radiochemotherapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma NPC. Factors potentially affecting tumor response to treatment were studied by multiple logistic regression analysis.

After radiochemotherapy, 32 patients had a clinical complete response CR , making the CR rate The area under the receiver operating characteristic ROC curve was 0. Vascular prosthetic graft infection VPGI is a severe complication after vascular surgery. The incidence of a false-negative result using CT is relatively high, especially in the presence of low-grade infections. Based on the available literature it is suggested that a linear, diffuse, and homogeneous uptake should not be regarded as an infection whereas focal or heterogeneous uptake with a projection over the vessel on CT is highly suggestive of infection.

However an accurate uptake and pattern recognition is warranted and cut-off uptake values and patterns need to be standardized before considering the technique to be the new standard. Early detection of recurrent can improve prognosis and survival of patients with cancer. The fused imaging provided by PET-CT can precisely localize the foci and demonstrate the complementary roles of functional and anatomic assessments in the diagnosis of cancer recurrence.

Endometriosis is a frequent and clinically relevant problem in young women. Laparoscopy is still the gold standard for the diagnosis of endometriosis, but frequently both morphologic and functional imaging techniques are involved in the diagnostic course before achieving a conclusive diagnosis.

Nevertheless, a pathologic confirmation is needed in cases of a focal 18F FDG uptake in the thyroid gland. This article reports a rare case of a focal 18F FDG uptake lesion by PET, which was revealed pathologically to be lymphocytic thyroiditis. Testicular adrenal rest tumors TARTs are secondary to hypertrophy of adrenal rest cells in the rete testis in settings of hypersecretion of androgens.

Evaluation of myocardial glucose metabolism in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy using 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. Thirty HCM patients Reduction of that maximum SUV was particularly significant in the lateral region from 5.

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma staging by 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. Chang, J. Methods and materials: A total of 95 patients, including 85 with primary and 10 with recurrent, NPC were enrolled. Eighty-one patients without distant metastases underwent repeat studies months after initial radical treatment. Results: Of 14 patients with distant metastases, all had lesions detected by FDG-PET, and the conventional workup detected the metastases in only 4.

Four patients without distant metastases on their initial workup were found to have new lesions on FDG-PET months after initial treatment. Of the 95 patients, the FDG-PET results for distant metastasis were true positive in 14 patients, false positive in 8, and true negative in None of our patients had a false-negative result. The accuracy was Fried, David V.

Purpose: To determine whether previously identified quantitative image features QIFs based on 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography FDG-PET co-occurrence matrix energy and solidity are able to isolate subgroups of patients who would receive a benefit or detriment from dose escalation in terms of overall survival OS or progression-free survival PFS.

Methods and Materials: Subgroups of a previously analyzed patient cohort were generated with the use of 5-percentile increment cutoff values of disease solidity and primary tumor co-occurrence matrix energy. The subgroups were analyzed with a log-rank test to determine whether there was a difference in OS and PFS between patients treated with 60 to 70 Gy and those receiving 74 Gy. Results: In the entire patient cohort, there was no statistical difference in terms of OS or PFS between patients receiving 74 Gy and those receiving 60 to 70 Gy.

It was qualitatively observed that as disease solidity and primary co-occurrence matrix energy increased, patients receiving 74 Gy had an improved OS and PFS compared with those receiving 60 to 70 Gy. The opposite trend detriment of receiving 74 Gy was also observed regarding low values of disease solidity and primary co-occurrence matrix energy.

Niedzielski, Joshua S. Methods and Materials: This retrospective study was approved by the local institutional review board, with written informed consent obtained before enrollment. We used nSUV metrics to classify esophagitis grade at the time of the PET study, as well as maximum severity by treatment completion, according to National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, using multivariate least absolute shrinkage and selection operator LASSO logistic regression and repeated 3-fold cross validation training, validation, and test folds.

Dose-volume metrics were also tested in both the multivariate classification and the symptom progression prediction analyses. Classification performance was quantified with the area under the curve AUC from receiver operating characteristic analysis on the test set from the 3-fold analyses. Results: Statistical analysis showed increasing nSUV is related to esophagitis severity.

Utility of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant gynaecological tumours. However, the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant gynaecological tumours according to FDG accumulation is unclear.

We assessed the maximum standardized uptake value SUVmax and determined its utility in the diagnosis of benign and malignant tumours using a receiver operating characteristic ROC curve analysis. Among the 63 patients with ovarian tumours, the mean SUVmax of 22 patients with benign ovarian tumours was 2.

Immunoglobulin G4 IgG4 -related disease encompasses a wide variety of immune disorders previously thought be distinct. IgG4-related retroperitoneal fibrosis is one such entity. We performed correlation analyses between FDG uptake and intima-media thickness IMT , and soluble biomarkers of inflammation.

Characteristics of [ 18 F ] fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in human colon cancer cells. Cancer tissues are characterized by increased glucose uptake. This study was aimed to compare the glucose uptake and glucose transporter 1 GLUT1 expression in various human colon cancer cells. Dose-response and time-course studies represent that FDG uptake of cancer cells were dose dependent and time dependent.

These results represent that FDG uptake into human colon cancer cells are different from each other. Kang, B. A year-old, neutered male, Maltese dog presented with a three week history of intention tremor, right hind limb rigidity, poor coordination, and occasional circling to the left. On magnetic resonance imaging MRI of the brain, a mass was identified in the right occipital lobe and cerebellum.

The FDG-PET demonstrated areas of hypermetabolism in the right occipital lobe, cerebellum, pons, and medulla oblongata. When the standardized uptake value was calculated, the hypermetabolic lesion was higher than the gray matter values. The dog was definitively diagnosed as a primary histiocytic sarcoma of the brain. This is the first report of PET findings of an intracranial histiocytic sarcoma in a dog. Urinary bladder diverticular carcinomas are uncommon with a lesser incidence of 0.

Cystoscopy is the most reliable method, but evaluating diverticulum with narrow orifices is difficult. Before the initiation of appropriate treatment, proper detection of bladder diverticular carcinoma and its locoregional and distant sites of involvement is necessary. This review focuses on the use of FDG Clinical impact of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in the diagnosis of neurological diseases.

In this review it will be discussed in which neurological disorders positron emission tomography can yield important diagnostic information. Because positron emission tomography is an expensive method indications have to be cleary defined. One important question concerns the differentiation of tumor recurrence and scar due to radiation therapy or an operation.

The grading of brain tumors is another application. In HIV patients fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography can separate lymphoma and toxoplasmosis. In the evaluation of dementia positron emission tomography can help to clarify the differential diagnosis. Another important area is the presurgical evaluation of epilepsy patients and patients with cerebrovascular disease in whom a surgical revascularization procedure is planned.

In extrapyramidal disorders, positron emission tomography can often help to establish the final diagnosis. Regional cerebral metabolic alterations in dementia of the Alzheimer type: positron emission tomography with [ 18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose. Friedland, R. Alzheimer disease is the most common cause of dementia in adults.

Despite recent advances in our understanding of its anatomy and chemistry, we remain largely ignorant of its pathogenesis, physiology, diagnosis, and treatment. Dynamic positron emission tomography using [ 18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose FDG was performed on the Donner crystal ring in 10 subjects with dementia of the Alzheimer type and six healthy age-matched controls.

Ratios comparing mean counts per resolution element in frontal, temporoparietal, and entire cortex regions in brain sections 10 mm thick obtained min following FDG injection showed relatively less FDG uptake in the temporoparietal cortex bilaterally in all the Alzheimer subjects p less than 0. Left-right alterations were less prominent than the anteroposterior changes. This diminished uptake was due to lowered rates of FDG use and suggests that the metabolic effects of Alzheimer disease are most concentrated in the temporoparietal cortex.

Positron emission tomography is a most powerful tool for the noninvasive in vivo assessment of cerebral pathophysiology in dementia. Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The occurrence of granulomatous disease in the setting of Hodgkin's disease is rare; however, when it occurs it can pose significant clinical and diagnostic challenges for physicians treating these patients. A subsequent biopsy of her post-chemotherapy PET-positive nodes demonstrated sarcoidosis with no evidence of Hodgkin's disease.

Advantages of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography in detecting post cardiac surgery infections. Consequently, it is a reliable tool for excluding an infectious phenomenon in case of negativity.

We have reported the case of a year-old man who presented with a fever of unknown origin and recurrent septic shocks after a biological Bentall procedure combined with left anterior descending LAD coronary artery revascularization by the left internal thoracic artery. A year-old female with complaints of gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain, fatigue, vomiting, nausea, and weight loss was diagnosed with neuroendocrine tumor after removal of a 2 mm lesion from the stomach with endoscopic biopsy.

Her magnetic resonance imaging that was performed due to on-going symptoms showed multiple linear hypointense lesions in the liver. Clinical and laboratory findings revealed the final diagnosis as Fasciola hepatica. Full Text Available A year-old female with complaints of gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain, fatigue, vomiting, nausea, and weight loss was diagnosed with neuroendocrine tumor after removal of a 2 mm lesion from the stomach with endoscopic biopsy.

Usefulness of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in follicular lymphoma management. Le Dortz, L. Patients and methods a retrospective study was performed on 45 patients with untreated biopsy-proven follicular lymphoma who underwent F. Poor prognosis was defined as incomplete therapeutic response or early relapse.

The median progression free survival P. Her diagnosis was confirmed by liver biopsy. Clinical symptoms of hepatic amyloidosis are generally mild at its first stage, with most frequent findings being hepatomegaly and alkaline phosphatase elevation. Recent advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology of systemic amyloidosis have made several treatments available. However, its prognosis is occasionally poor. Because liver biopsy is not always safe, other modalities for the diagnosis are needed.

Of interest was that fluorodeoxyglucose FDG uptake into the liver was observed, compared with that into the spleen, in this patient, indicating that FDG positron emission tomography and computed tomography might be useful for the diagnosis of hepatic amyloidosis with mild liver dysfunction. Purpose: To develop a prediction model to identify a low-risk group for distant recurrence in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer treated by concurrent chemoradiation.

Methods and Materials: Prospectively, 62 patients with locally advanced cervical cancer were recruited as a training cohort. Clinical variables and parameters obtained from positron emission tomography PET and magnetic resonance imaging were analyzed by logistic regression. For the test set, 54 patients were recruited independently. To identify the low-risk group, negative likelihood ratio LR less than 0.

Using the two parameters, criteria to determine a low-risk subset for distant recurrence were postulated: 1 FIGO Stage IIB or less and 2 pretreatment SCC cancer who are treated with concurrent chemoradiation. Conventional imaging included the following: bone scintigraphy; chest X-ray in Results: Distant metastases were observed in nine patients On patient-based analysis, conventional imaging identified distant metastases in all 9 patients.

Comparison of primary tumour volumes delineated on four-dimensional computed tomography maximum intensity projection and 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography computed tomography images of non-small cell lung cancer.

Results and Conclusions. Background Carcinoma of unknown primary CUP encompasses a heterogeneous group of tumors with varying clinical features. The management of patients of CUP remains a clinical challenge. Methods One hundred and forty-nine patients with histologically-proven metastases of CUP were included. For all patients,the conventional diagnostic work-up was unsuccessful in localizing the primary site. Results In Forty-seven The two sets of findings were compared both at baseline and during follow-up.

Serial HRCT and pulmonary function tests were used to evaluate outcome in patients with lung involvement. PET-CT showed additional lesions in seven patients, mostly involving bones, and differentiated inactive from active lesions. PET was undertaken within 1 week after computed tomography CT. Clinical impacts of additional PET were determined on a scan basis. A total of 14 patients were recruited. Sixteen PET scans were performed, with one patient having three serial studies.

Benefits of additional PET were seen in 7 of 16 On the other hand, in two instances there were false-negative PET findings, six scans yielded no benefit, and one showed an indeterminate lesion. The use of molecular sieves to simulate hot lesions in 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose--positron emission tomography imaging.

We investigated the use of a kind of zeolite, the Bowie chabazite, to produce radioactive sources of different shapes, dimensions and activity concentrations that can be used for lesion simulation in positron emission tomography PET imaging. The 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose 18 F-FDG uptake of a group of 12 zeolites was studied as a function of their weight , mg and of the activity concentration of the 18 F-FDG solution MBq ml -1 , using a multiple linear regression model.

The reproducibility, homogeneity and stability over time of the 18 F-FDG uptake were assessed. This relation allows the production of zeolites of a desired 18 F-FDG activity using knowledge of the concentration of the soaking solution and the weight of the zeolite. The almost complete regeneration of the zeolites allows us to reuse them in successive experiments.

The stability of the 18 F-FDG uptake on zeolites is far from ideal. When placed in a saline solution the 'activated' zeolites release the 18 F-FDG with an effective half-time of 53 min. The sealing of the zeolites in plastic film bags has been demonstrated to be effective in preventing any release of 18 F-FDG.

These features, together with their variable dimensions and shapes, make them ideal 18 F-FDG sources with a fixed target-to-background ratio that can be placed anywhere in a phantom to study lesion detectability in PET imaging. Influence of [ 18 F ] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography on salvage treatment decision making for locally persistent nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of [ 18 F ] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography FDG-PET in influencing salvage treatment decision making for locally persistent nasopharyngeal carcinoma NPC. The salvage treatment decisions, with regard to the decision to offer salvage treatment and the definition of gross tumor volume GTV , were made before knowledge of the FDG-PET findings.

Spontaneous remission was observed in repeat biopsies and no local recurrence was found in these 4 cases. Conclusion: Use of FDG-PET was found to influence the salvage treatment decision making for locally persistent NPC by identifying patients who were not likely to benefit from additional treatment and by improving accuracy of GTV definition in salvage treatment planning. A computed tomography-based spatial normalization for the analysis of [ 18 F ] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography of the brain.

We developed a new computed tomography CT -based spatial normalization method and CT template to demonstrate its usefulness in spatial normalization of positron emission tomography PET images with [ 18 F ] fluorodeoxyglucose FDG PET studies in healthy controls. T1-weighted magnetic resonance MR images were acquired for all subjects.

The skull-stripped MR and CT images were spatially normalized to each structural template. PET images were spatially normalized by applying spatial transformation parameters to normalize skull-stripped MR and CT images. All three spatial normalization methods underestimated regional SUV values by 0. The CT-based method showed slightly greater underestimation bias. Regional SUV values derived from all three spatial normalization methods were correlated significantly p normalization may be an alternative method for structure-based spatial normalization of [ 18 F] FDG PET when MR imaging is unavailable.

The role of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in gestational trophoblastic tumours: a pilot study. Our preliminary results suggest that 18 F-FDG PET is potentially useful in selected patients with GTT by providing precise mapping of metastases and tumour extent upfront, by monitoring treatment response and by localising viable tumours after chemotherapy.

In these patients, the diagnoses could not be confirmed using conventional modalities. The patients' clinical courses were retrospectively reviewed. On the basis of surgical, microbiological and clinical follow-up findings, the aortic grafts were considered infected in 4 patients and not infected in 5.

All 4 patients with graft infection root: 2 cases, arch: 1 case and descending: 1 case eventually underwent in situ re-replacement. Two of the 4 patients also had abdominal grafts; however, only the thoracic grafts were replaced because uptake was low around the abdominal grafts. The maximal standardized uptake value SUVmax in the perigraft area was higher in the infected group than in the non-infected group An SUVmax value greater than 8 around a graft suggests the presence of graft infection.

This is especially useful if multiple separated prosthetic grafts have been implanted. The use of molecular sieves to simulate hot lesions in 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography imaging. The 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose 18 F-FDG uptake of a group of 12 zeolites was studied as a function of their weight mg and of the activity concentration of the 18 F-FDG solution MBq ml -1 , using a multiple linear regression model.

The clinical problem in suspected aortoiliac graft infection AGI is to obtain proof of infection. Sixteen patients were suspected to have an AGI group I. AGI was considered proven only in the case of a positive bacterial culture. Positive cultures were found in 10 of the 16 patients group Ia , and in the other six patients, cultures remained negative group Ib. The objective of this retrospective study was to examine the feasibility and utility of 18 F-FDG uptake heterogeneity characterized by textural features to diagnose AGI.

Textural features of "1"8F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scanning in diagnosing aortic prosthetic graft infection. Although "1"8F-fluorodeoxyglucose "1"8F-FDG positron emission tomography scanning PET has been suggested to play a pivotal role, an evidence-based interpretation is lacking. The objective of this retrospective study was to examine the feasibility and utility of "1"8F-FDG uptake heterogeneity characterized by textural features to diagnose AGI.

SUVmax was found predictive. We report the contrast-enhanced computed tomography CT and 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography findings in adrenal histoplasmosis and candidiasis. Both demonstrated bilateral hypermetabolic heterogeneous adrenal masses with limited wash-out on delayed CT. Adrenal candidiasis has not been previously reported, nor have the CT wash-out findings in either infection.

The adrenal imaging findings are indistinguishable from malignancy, which is more common; but in this setting, physicians should be alert to the differential diagnosis of fungal infections, since it can be equally deadly. Published by Elsevier Inc. Timmers, Henri J. Background Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas PPGLs are rare tumors of the adrenal medulla and extra-adrenal sympathetic chromaffin tissues; their anatomical and functional imaging are critical to guiding treatment decisions.

Methods A total of patients men, women, aged Sensitivity and specificity were measured as endpoints and compared by the McNemar test, using two-sided P values only. Mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor EGFR gene have been identified as potential targets for the treatment and prognostic factors for non small cell lung cancer NSCLC.

A total of patients with pathologically confirmed NSCLC were enrolled 99 males and 64 females; median age, 60 years. The maximum standardized uptake value SUVmax of the primary lung cancer was measured and normalized with regard to liver uptake.

EGFR mutations were found in 57 patients The SUVmax tended to be higher in wild type than mutant tumors, but was not significantly different There was no significant difference in survival according to SUVmax. Both OS and progression free survival of patients with a mutation in exon 19 were significant longer than in patients with wild type tumors. Analysis of gene expression profiles of hepatocellular carcinomas with regard to 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake pattern on positron emission tomography.

In this study, the gene expression profiles of hepatocellular carcinomas HCCs were evaluated to determine whether HCCs with high 18 F-FDG uptake have more aggressive biological potential than those with low uptake. Surgical specimens were obtained from ten patients with HCC six males and four females, age range years. The gene expression profiles were evaluated using an oligoDNA microarray.

The HCCs with high 18 F-FDG uptake showed increased expression of 11 genes - including vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, vinexin beta and core 1 UDP-galactose: N-acetylgalactosamine-alpha-R-beta 1,3-galactosyltransferase and the natural killer cell inhibitory receptor - compared to those with low uptake p 18 F-FDG uptake appear to have more aggressive biological properties than those with low uptake.

The ability to distinguish malignant from benign retroperitoneal fibrosis RPF and to select patients who are likely to respond to steroid treatment using a noninvasive test would be a major step forward in the management of patients with RPF. Management was based on the findings from these investigations. Median follow-up was 16 mo. This technique can distinguish cancer from noncancerous RPF, and may be better than blood tests in assessing and monitoring RPF.

It also appears to predict a patient's response to steroids, which should allow more individualised treatment. A case of skeletal tuberculosis and psoas abscess: disease activity evaluated using 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography. Psoas abscess complicating tuberculous spondylitis is a rare morbidity in extrapulmonary tuberculosis. There are no established guidelines for evaluating the clinical response of psoas abscess. Although several studies have shown that positron emission tomography-computed tomography with 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose can play a potential role in diagnosing multifocal tuberculosis and monitoring the clinical response of pulmonary tuberculosis, to our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that positron emission tomography-computed tomography is useful for evaluating local inflammation and disease activity of a tuberculous psoas abscess.

We report a case of multifocal bone and lymph node tuberculosis with concomitant lumbar psoas abscess in a year-old man, along with a literature review. An initial positron emission tomography-computed tomography scan showed intense 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose accumulation in the sternum, ribs, vertebrae, and lymph nodes. The patient was successfully treated with antitubercular agents and computed tomography-guided drainage therapy. A follow-up positron emission tomography-computed tomography after abscess drainage and 9 months of antitubercular drug treatment revealed that the majority of lesions improved; however, protracted inflammation surrounding the psoas abscess was still observed.

These results indicate that disease activity of psoas abscess can remain, even after successful drainage and antitubercular medication regime of appropriate duration. We have successfully followed up the extent of skeletal tuberculosis complicated with psoas abscess by positron emission tomography-computed tomography. In this patient, positron emission tomography-computed tomography is useful for evaluating the disease activity of tuberculous psoas abscess and for assessing the appropriate duration of antitubercular drug therapy in psoas abscess.

To date, anatomical imaging modalities of the pelvis and tumor markers have been the mainstay of surveillance for recurrent ovary cancer. CA level was available in all patients. Confirmation was available through re-operation or biopsy in 26 cases, and clinical assessment with series of follow-up images in The combined PET and CT scan provides more accurate detection of tumors by providing the functional and anatomic information simultaneously, 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET-CT has clinical value in localizing primary tumor, staging before treatment, monitoring the residual and recurrent diseases after radiotherapy and providing biological target volume to radiation treatment planning.

Prodigious efforts and landmark discoveries have led toward significant advances in our understanding of atherosclerosis. Despite significant efforts, atherosclerosis continues globally to be a leading cause of mortality and reduced quality of life. With surges in the prevalence of obesity and diabetes, atherosclerosis is expected to have an even more pronounced impact upon the global burden of disease. It is imperative to develop strategies for the early detection of disease. Positron emission tomography PET imaging utilizing [ 18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose FDG may provide a non-invasive means of characterizing inflammatory activity within atherosclerotic plaque, thus serving as a surrogate biomarker for detecting vulnerable plaque.

The aim of this review is to explore the rationale for performing FDG imaging, provide an overview into the mechanism of action, and summarize findings from the early application of FDG PET imaging in the clinical setting to evaluate vascular disease. Alternative imaging biomarkers and approaches are briefly discussed. Materials and Methods The study was approved by the institutional review board.

Patients gave written informed consent. Static and parametric images of glucose metabolic rate were obtained to determine lesion volumes by using three delineation strategies. Whole tumor and regional rate constants and blood volume fraction V B were computed by using compartment modeling. Results Pathology volumes were larger than PET volumes median difference, 8. Differences in glycolytic rate and V B between SCC and AC are relevant for research in targeting agents and radiation therapy dose escalation.

Up to now, experience with this very new tracer is limited. All patients except one were operated on. MTO imaging clearly distinguished cortical from non-cortical adrenal masses median standardised uptake values of Epstein-Barr virus-associated gastric cancer EBVaGC is one of the four molecular subtypes of gastric cancer , as defined by the classification recently proposed by The Cancer Genome Atlas.

We analyzed the correlation between EBV positivity, clinicopathologic features and metabolic activity of the primary tumor. A total of patients were included and 15 7. Age, gender, tumor location, and histological type showed no significant differences between EBV-positive and negative groups.

The infection status of EBV was significantly related to the 18 F-FDG uptake of primary tumors in patients with advanced gastric cancer. George J. Delinasios , All rights reserved. Full Text Available Context: The results of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose FDG-PET imaging carried out with the current standard techniques for assessment of urinary tract cancers have been reported to be less than satisfactory because of the urinary excretion of the tracer.

Materials and Methods: Twenty-nine patients with invasive cancer of the urinary bladder were included in this study. Patients were divided into two groups: Group I 22 patients included cases with invasive bladder cancer who had not undergone cystectomy and group II seven patients included cases with invasive bladder cancer who had undergone cystectomy and urinary diversion procedure.

Additional delayed images were acquired min after IV furosemide and oral hydration. Results: The technique was successful in achieving adequate washout of urinary FDG and overcame the problems posed by the excess FDG in the urinary tract. Hypermetabolic lesions could be easily detected by PET and precisely localized to the bladder wall, perivesical region and pelvic lymph nodes.

The results of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose FDG -PET imaging carried out with the current standard techniques for assessment of urinary tract cancers have been reported to be less than satisfactory because of the urinary excretion of the tracer. Twenty-nine patients with invasive cancer of the urinary bladder were included in this study. The technique was successful in achieving adequate washout of urinary FDG and overcame the problems posed by the excess FDG in the urinary tract.

The value of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography for prediction of treatment response in gastrointestinal stromal tumors: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Early detection of response to treatment is critically important in gastrointestinal stromal tumors GIST. Therefore, the present systematic review and meta-analysis assessed the value of 18 f-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography 18 FDG-PET on prediction of therapeutic response of GIST patients to systemic treatments.

Finally, 21 relevant articles were included. Correlation of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake on positron emission tomography with Ki index and pathological invasive area in lung adenocarcinomas 30 mm or less in size. Tumors were classified as air-type or solid-type based on TS-CT findings. In all resected specimens, diameter of the pathological invasive area and Ki index were assessed.

Results: SUVmax was significantly lower for air-type than for solid-type tumors 0. Conclusions: SUVmax correlated significantly with Ki index and diameter of the pathological invasive area. The present results suggest the potential role of FDG-PET in predicting adenocarcinomas with invasive characteristics. Langerhans cell histiocytosis LCH is a rare clonal proliferative disease, with an incidence rate of 4. LCH encompasses a spectrum of disorders with diverse clinical presentations ranging from a single organ to multiple organ involvement.

LCH rarely involves the thyroid gland. We presented a case with LCH of thyroid gland. The patient had painless progressive neck enlargement and then diabetes insipidus. Ultrasonic scan and magnetic resonance imaging scan revealed nodular goiter and pituitary stalk enlargement, respectively.

Histopathological analysis revealed features of histiocytoid cells. Fluorodeoxyglucose FDG positron emission tomography PET has become the common imaging modality in oncological practice. FDG uptake is seen in brown adipose tissue in a significant number of patients. Patients with histologically proven lymphoma were enrolled in this prospective, institutional review board-approved study.

Thirty-four patients with a total of 40 examinations were included. Quantification of the activity of tritium produced during the routine synthesis of 18 F fluorodeoxyglucose for positron emission tomography. Gamma emitting radioactive by-products generated during the cyclotron irradiation of 18 O labelled water by protons to produce 18 FDG fluorodeoxyglucose for positron emission tomography are well characterised. However, the production of tritium 3 H through the 18 O p,t 16 O nuclear reaction has not been investigated in detail.

The aim of this study was to measure tritium activity produced during a large number of 18 FDG production runs in order to obtain a better perspective on its impact on radioactive waste management, particularly as regards storage and disposal. Tritium was assayed by liquid scintillation counting in recovered 18 O water from 24 separate production runs.

The mean SD values of activity and activity concentration were 20 kBq and 81 8 kBq ml -1 respectively. Both quantities were positively correlated with the activity of 18 F. Tritium was detected in much lower concentration in water used to rinse the target vessel. The activity of tritium is such that it is exempt from regulatory control and may be combined with bulk non-active waste for disposal as Very Low Level Waste.

However, variations in the irradiation conditions or the procedures for the collection of recovered water might result in its classification as Low Level Waste, necessitating a more complex disposal regime. PET with 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose for staging of non-small cell lung cancer. Aims: To evaluate studies on the use of positron emission tomography with the glucose analog 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose FDG-PET for the preoperative staging of patients with non-small cell lung cancer NSCLC according to the criteria of evidence based medicine and to discuss the cost-effectiveness of the technique.

Methods: Clinical studies published between and on the preoperative staging of non-small cell lung cancer were used for this analysis. Since systematic analyses also indicate a favourable cost-effectiveness ratio FDG-PET has to be considered as 'strictly indicated' for the preoperative staging of a non-small cell lung cancer.

This study was aimed at assessing cardiac FDG PET in rats pre-medicated with acipimox, a potent nicotinic acid derivative yielding comparable image quality to clamping in man. Metabolic conditioning was compared in Wistar rats between a conventional oral glucose loading 1.

TA patients were classified as active disease, inactive disease and possible active disease. We analyzed the correlation between pSUV and invasiveness, lesion size, and the histologic factors of invasive ductal carcinoma IDC. Timely identification of septic foci is critical in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock of unknown origin. Seventeen patients were prospectively included, all on mechanical ventilation and 14 under vasopressor drugs.

Visual and semiquantitative analysis of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography using a partial-ring tomograph without attenuation correction to differentiate benign and malignant pulmonary nodules. Many studies have reported the use of attenuation-corrected positron emission tomography with 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose FDG PET with full-ring tomographs to differentiate between benign and malignant pulmonary nodules.

A retrospective review of PET images from 77 patients range years of age with proven benign or malignant pulmonary nodules was undertaken. Images were visually graded on a 5-point scale from 'definitely malignant' to 'definitely benign,' and lesion-to-background LB ratios were calculated using region of interest analysis. Visual and semiquantitative analyses were compared using receiver operating characteristic analysis.

Twenty lesions were benign and 57 were malignant. The mean LB ratio for benign lesions was 1. The mean tumour SUVmax was 4. In ccRCC and pRCC tumours, high-grade tumours had a significantly greater SUVmax p Prognostic value of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma with pathologically positive neck lymph node.

Thirty-six Follow-up ranged from 20 to months median, 56 months. However, there was no impact of neck node standardized uptake value SUV max on clinical outcomes. Comparison with 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose for imaging and evaluation of tumor aggressiveness. The AC and FDG uptakes were examined to determine the relationship with tumor aggressiveness, id est i. Jain, Avani S. To assess the diagnostic utility of contrast-enhanced 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography FDG PET-ceCT in localization of tumors in patients with clinical diagnosis of tumor-induced osteomalacia TIO , in correlation with histopathological results.

Eight patients five male and three female aged 24—60 mean 42 years with a clinical diagnosis of TIO were included in this prospective study. Hemangiopericytoma was the most common reported histology. All patients underwent surgery, following which they demonstrated clinical improvement. The tumors causing TIO are small in size and usually located in obscure sites in the body. Once the tumor is localized, regional magnetic resonance imaging can be performed for better characterization of soft tissue lesion.

Area-under-the-curve AUC values were compared among the four parameters using a nonparametric method. However, they are not routinely performed because their use is time-consuming. Cases presenting lung or liver uptakes were analyzed. Lesion location and quantitative parameters were recorded and compared.

Considering the lesions, and 43 were located in the lungs and the liver, respectively. To evaluate the potential and correlation between near-infrared fluorescence NIRF imaging using cyanine 5. We used 10 CIA and 3 normal mice. Nine days after the injecting collagen twice, microPET imaging was performed 40 minutes after the intravenous injection of 9.

We assessed the correlation between these two modalities in the knees and ankles of CIA mice. Moreover, both HGC-Cy5. As such, HGC-Cy5. Results: Twenty-seven patients with a median age of 12 years were included; 11 had Hodgkin's disease and 16 had non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

Three patients had confirmed lymph node follicular hyperplasia by biopsy, while all 27 patients achieved disease-free survival during the follow-up period. The maximum standardized uptake values SUV max of cervical lymph nodes were 2.

Bilateral cervical lymph node hyperplasia was symmetrical in terms of both the SUV max and affected locations. Thymic hyperplasia and nasopharyngeal lymphoid hyperplasia were both observed in 24 patients There was no relationship in terms of the SUV max between cervical lymph nodes and thymic tissue, cervical nodes or nasopharyngeal lymphoid tissue.

Comparative study of Tl reinjection tomography and combined use of 13N-ammonia and 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography for detection of viable myocardium. Objective: To compare the clinical value of Tl reinjection tomography and combined use of 13 N-ammonia NH 3 regional myocardial perfusion and 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose FDG positron emission tomography transfer function and for the myocardium.

Vertical and horizontal long axis cuts were divided into nine segments, and uptakes of radioisotope were evaluated into four classes visually Defect score, DS 0:normal uptake, 3:severely reduced. Quantitative evaluation was performed on the vertical and horizontal long axis cuts of Tl redistribution, reinjection and FDG PET images using regions of interest.

Of 24 segments with severe irreversible defects on the Tl redistribution imaging, Prognostic value of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma with pathologically positive neck lymph node. Hu, Ying-Ying, E-mail: huyy sysucc. Brix, G. Fourteen women with suspicious breast lesions were examined.

The MRI data were acquired with a turbo fast low-angle shot sequence and analyzed using a pharmacokinetic model. Emission data were detected in the sensitive 3D modus, iteratively reconstructed, and superimposed onto corresponding transmission images. In the 14 patients, 13 breast masses with a suspicious contrast enhancement and FDG uptake were detected. For these lesions, no statistically significant correlation between evaluated MR and PET parameters was found. Two inflammatory lesions were concordantly classified as cancer.

Moreover, dynamic MRI yielded another false-positive finding. Although both functional imaging techniques provide independent tissue information, the results concerning the diagnosis of primary breast lesions were almost identical. An advantage of PET, however, is its ability to localize lymph node involvement and distant metastases as an integral part of the examination. It was the aim of this methodology-oriented clinical pilot study to compare the potential of dynamic MRI and 2-[ 18 F]fluorodeoxy-D-glucose FDG positron emission tomography PET for the detection and characterization of breast cancer.

Leseur, J. Patients and methods. The performances of FDG-PET for lymph node detection relatively to the lymph node dissection have been described sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value. PET tumour parameters analyzed were: maximum standard uptake value SUV max , the volume and the maximum diameter.

The prognostic and predictive values of these parameters were investigated. The tumour response was evaluated on surgical specimens. Prostate cancer is a major public health problem in developed countries. The remarkable biological and clinical heterogeneity of prostate cancer provides unique opportunities as well as challenges for the diagnostic imaging evaluation of this prevalent disease.

The disease is characterized by a natural history that ranges from localized slowly growing hormone-dependent tumor progressing to metastatic hormone-refractory disease. PET is an ideal imaging tool for noninvasive interrogation of the underlying tumor biology.

FDG uptake in prostate cancer depends on tumor differentiation with low accumulation in well-differentiated tumors and high uptake in aggressive poorly differentiated tumors. Cumulative current evidence suggests that FDG PET may be useful in detection of disease in a small fraction of patients with biochemical recurrence, in the imaging evaluation of extent and treatment response in metastatic disease and in prediction of patient outcome.

Positron emission tomography response criteria in solid tumours criteria for quantitative analysis of [ 18 F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography with integrated computed tomography for treatment response assessment in metastasised solid tumours: All that glitters is not gold.

For solid tumours, quantitative analysis of [ 18 F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography with integrated computed tomography potentially can have significant value in early response assessment and thereby discrimination between responders and non-responders at an early stage of treatment.

Standardised strategies for this analysis have been proposed, and the positron emission tomography response criteria in solid tumours PERCIST criteria can be regarded as the current standard to perform quantitative analysis in a research setting, yet is not implemented in daily practice.

In this article, we point out dilemmas that arise when applying proposed criteria like PERCIST on an expansive set of patients with metastasised solid tumours. Clinicians and scientists should be aware of these limitations to prevent that methodological issues impede successful introduction of research data into clinical practice. Therefore, to deliver on the high potential of quantitative imaging, consensus should be reached on a standardised, feasible and clinically useful analysis methodology.

This methodology should be applicable in the majority of patients, tumour types and treatments. The added value of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography computed tomography in patients with neck lymph node metastases from an unknown primary malignancy. The search for a primary malignancy in patients with a metastatic cervical lymph node is challenging yet ultimately of utmost clinical importance.

This study evaluated the efficacy of positron emission tomography computed tomography in detecting the occult primary, within the context of a tertiary referral centre head and neck cancer multidisciplinary team tumour board meeting. Thirty-two patients 23 men and 9 women; mean and median age, 61 years with a metastatic cervical lymph node of unknown primary origin, after clinical examination and magnetic resonance imaging, underwent positron emission tomography computed tomography.

Combining these results with those of 10 earlier studies of similar patients gave an overall detection rate of 37 per cent. Positron emission tomography computed tomography has become an important imaging modality. To date, it has the highest primary tumour detection rate, for head and neck cancer patients presenting with cervical lymph node metastases from an unknown primary. Positron emission tomography PET with fluorinelabeled fluorodeoxyglucose 18 F-FDG has been used for the staging and evaluation of recurrence in cancer patients.

A year-old male patient with chondrosarcoma of the left iliac bone underwent radical resection, metal brace implanting and radiotherapy. High-resolution 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging for pituitary adenoma detection in Cushing disease. Imaging findings were correlated to operative and histological findings.

Louis, Missouri United States. Local-regional failure was defined as failure within the treated RT volume and reported by the treating institution. Statistical analyses included Wilcoxon signed rank test, Kaplan-Meier curves log rank test , and Cox proportional hazards regression modeling. Further evaluation by peripheral smear examination revealed malaria. This report highlights that in endemic regions malaria can cause 18 F-FDG avid splenomegaly and might mimic relapse of lymphoma.

Adenocarcinoma cervix is an uncommon histological subtype of carcinoma cervix; further incidence of skeletal muscle metastases is even rarer. We report the identification of extensive fluorodeoxyglucose FDG avid metastatic skeletal muscle deposits in a known case of adenocarcinoma cervix. The largest lesion representative of muscle deposit in the right deltoid was histopathologically confirmed to be metastatic poorly differentiated carcinoma.

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Paragraph operations include:. Zone operations are made directly in the full article text panel located to the left. Zone operations include:. Hicks-a son. Higgs-a son stillborn. Mayman, of Menai-a son. Mar- garet's private hospital, to Mr. Wilkinson, of Jura-a son James Maxwell. Smithenbecker and the late Mr. Smithenbecker, Albury, to Morris Harold, second son of Mrs. Carrigg, and the late Mr. Carrigg, Corowa. George Henderson, of Rand-. Lake, of 3 Glenferrie Street, Caul-. George Degan, of Gladesville, to Cecil, son of late Mr.

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Loving son of Dr. Higgison, and dear sister of Eileen, of Hurstville,. Brown, deceased , Byron Bay; J. Harold Boyd, Gooloogong; Dorothy Mrs. Powell , Burwood; Clement A. Maloney , Ashbury; and Clara Mrs. Farr , Ashbury, aged 84 years. See Funeral Notices. Coad, of Harbord Road, Harbord, Manly, aged 4. Requiescat in pace. Collins, of 34 Botanic Road, Balmoral, aged 4 months.

English , Donald and Jack, aged 47 years. For funeral. Marshall , Madge Mrs. Fenwick ,. Clapham , and Ruth Mrs. Johns , aged 81 years. Privately cremated. John Hassett, formerly of Benalla Victoria , and. Hogan , Frank de- ceased , and Joseph Melbourne , aged 67 years. Tyrrell , in his 80th year. Cashion and Frederick and dear sister of Maude, aged 70 years. Timbs , Roy, and Leslie, aged 56 years.

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Search Advanced Search. Prev issue Next issue Browse issues. Prev page Next page Browse pages. Prev article Next article Browse articles. Close Please wait. Loading browse data The findings were then weighted by polling experts at Oxford University to be as representative as possible for each country.

UNDP administrator Achim Steiner said the results clearly show urgent action to tackle climate change has broad support amongst people around the world. Support is there cross nationalities, age, gender and education level - including evidence that 'people want their policymakers to tackle the crisis,' said Steiner.

Prof Stephen Fisher, from the Department of Sociology at Oxford, said it was the biggest ever survey of public opinion on climate change. Adding that it has shown that 'mobile gaming networks can not only reach a lot of people, they can engage different kinds of people in a diverse group of countries. We've also found that most people clearly want a strong and wide-raging policy response. The Paris Agreement, which was first signed in , is an international agreement to control and limit climate change.

It seems the more ambitious goal of restricting global warming to 1. In June , President Trump announced his intention for the US, the second largest producer of greenhouse gases in the world, to withdraw from the agreement. The Paris Agreement on Climate Change has four main goals with regards to reducing emissions:.

Source: European Commission. The views expressed in the contents above are those of our users and do not necessarily reflect the views of MailOnline. Young children CAN follow social distancing rules: Covid mitigation measures reduced close in-person contacts in primary schools by 53 per cent, study shows.

Argos AO. Privacy Policy Feedback. Share this article Share. Share or comment on this article: Two thirds of people worldwide regard climate change as a 'global emergency' e-mail Comments Share what you think. View all. More top stories. Bing Site Web Enter search term: Search. Download our iPhone app Download our Android app. Today's headlines Most Read Europe's first common currency: Early Bronze Age people used rings, bangles and even axe blades as an early Zebras with spots and gold fur are observed in Africa that are genetic mutations from inbreeding that can New Year, new Google!

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