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This pioneer soon migrated to the section of the Shenandoah Valley where Strasburg, Va. In the "gold rush" of , John Lineberger, son of David, and grandfather of the present Congressman, went to California in a sailing vessel around Cape Horn, and helped to lay the early foundations of that State.
He voted for John C. Fremont for President in the California election in The Germanic element entered rather more than it is usually credited with doing into the early history of the Middle West of North America, of which Michigan has come to be an important province. Historically the territory of the Great Lakes basin was explored and settled by the French, who, by the time they became settlers within its area, looked to Montreal and Quebec as their origins, rather than to Paris, having become more French-Canadian than French-European.
As the territory became known, and to be considered worth fighting for and having for its economic and colonial values, the British came into it for trade purposes of territorial dominion. Their continuous state of conflict with the French and the Indians has no pertinence to this study further than it explains the early injection of people of various extractions into the body of the early settlers.
From the beginnings most of these people were French and English. Some more of them were Irish and Scotch. A notable number were Germans. The appearance of these last was due to the operation of other causes than influenced the coming of the others, causes which were peculiar to the people and somewhat unconnected with each other.
This explains why there have been three or four distinct historical. Even outside the operation of these causes, a proportion of the state's early population, derived from this racial strain, is accounted for by the presence of the mere wanderer, who belongs to every race and who has gone to every place.
These reasons classify as follow: Causes of Various Migrations First, the presence in the British colonial armies, prior to the American War of the Revolution, of German soldiers of the type that were hired from their princes or were isolated adventurers of that period. And into this group must be allocated those who, having been British soldiers in that war, were later patriated in Western Canada, and found their way across the present national boundary; Second, the migration, westward, of persons of German blood and descent already in the United States, their racial strain derived from earlier Germanic settlements in the eastern part of the country.
These people were quite as distinctively German as if they had come directly from abroad, being the results of purely German environments in their New York and Pennsylvania village homes. A great many of them have been claimed as Dutch, partly from the suggestion contained in their family names, partly from the early practice of classifying all Germans as "Dutch," in the vernacular; Third, the settlement in the United States, largely in Michigan and Wisconsin, of families of devout German peasants, who came out, quite long before the Revolution of , as participants in missionary enterprises undertaken among the Indians.
This segregation of the origins of present day GermanAmericans in Michigan will help to account for the length of time during which German-American names have occupied places in Michigan history and the diversity of locations in which they have appeared from time to time. A German Governor of Canada The territory which is now the state of Michigan has experienced a variety of rulership.
Charles Moore has phrased this control aptly by describing it as having been "Under Three Flags. The Cross of St. George began to fly over Michigan in and continued to hold legally until long after the war of the American Colonies for their independence had ended.
There were eleven British Governors during this period. The one who ruled longest and during the most critical times was Sir Frederick Haldimand, Governor-General of Canada from to , including parts of Michigan, as far west as Wisconsin, and down through Ohio and Indiana to the Ohio river. Haldimand was one of a pair of German military men who, following the custom of the times, had gone into the employ of the British Kings.
Through assignment to duty in America and most definitely to Canada, they came to exercise a great deal of authority and influence over what is now the territory of Michigan. Haldimand's companion-in. Both were born in Switzerland, Bouquet of a French father and a German mother, Haldimand of German parents on both sides. They were personal friends from boyhood, and their histories run parallel through many years of their respective lives.
They were both types of the professional soldiers of the period in which they lived. He died at Pensacola, Florida, in He first entered the Dutch service, then that of the King of Sardinia, where he met up with General Haldimand. The two of them joined up with the British army in Bouquet came out to America in the following year. In he operated against Fort Duquesne. He was naturalized as a British subject in Canada in In he was in command at Philadelphia.
In he led an expedition against the Ohio Indians. His headquarters were in Montreal from onward, after the cession of Canada to the British by the French, and he directed operations as far northwest as Mackinaw and westward to St. This field of activity brought the officers at Detroit under his jurisdiction. Copies of his military papers, as well as those of Haldimand, are in the possession of the Michigan Historical Society.
Frederick Haldimand was born at Neufchatel, in Switzerland, in , and he died at Yverdun, in his native land, in He took service as a young man in the Sardinian army and then served in the Prussian army for a period, beginning in In he was hired by the English King and for a time was an adviser of the British military authorities.
He was sent to America in , was at Ticonderoga, Oswego and Montreal and in Florida before , and in he succeeded Gen. He held office until November, In time he had on his hands the problem of disposing of those of the Hessian troops whom the British had hired from their princes for service in the Revolutionary war, and who, after its ending, were not content either to settle in the United States or go back to Hesse; and he had a great deal to do with the settlement of the American Tories, or United Empire Loyalists, in the Province of Upper Canada, now Ontario.
Hessian Patriation in Canada As to the Hessians there was a bit of governmental commerce in settling them in Canada, because the contract with the Landgraf of Hesse under which they were leased out to the British, contained a clause which provided for a payment of ten pounds sterling for each man who was not returned, unless he was personally willing to stay in America.
Haldimand was not a particularly lovable character. He ruled with a strong hand and was not averse to the use of savage warfare against civilized white people. There was a general tendency on the part of the British to make the most of their German settlers in the Canadian plantation.
This was Haldimand's policy, and that the policy was not abandoned is evident from Lord Dorchester's proclamation, after Haldimand's time, erecting four Provinces in Upper Canada, for court and registration purposes, and naming them Hesse, Nassau, Mecklenburg and Lunenberg. Michigan fell into Hesse, and that was its legal designation until the British evacuation in Haldimand's colonists did not all stay by him in Ontario. Quite a number were attracted across the border and. Bouquet's military authority over Michigan, exercised from his headquarters at Montreal, began in He had German-born soldiers in his service, so from his time onward, names of Germanic aspect begin to appear in the history of the state.
Among these was a family named Hambach, Henry and William of whom were in Detroit as early as , while a third, Jacob D. Hambach, was as far west as St. Joseph in the following year. They were all in the fur trade, a traffic concerning which William Hambach sent Gen. Bouquet some information in a letter of June 27, In the following month Bouquet got another letter, this one from Henry Hambach, begging him to allow a quantity of rum to be sent out to him from Montreal, "for to sell it to the inhabitants at this place.
Schlosser was heard from with some regularity thereafter. In the month after his arrival at Detroit he was joined, under orders from Bouquet, by Lieut. While in Detroit, this duty, which was temporary, Meyer experienced the high cost of living of the period, about which he later complained to Bouquet. He had to pay three "ecus" per dozen for fresh eggs, an "ecu" being an old French money value equal to an English crown, or five shillings. About this same time, Capt.
Campbell, a British officer, induced Sergeant Steiner, whose time had expired, to stay in Detroit another year. Meantime, Andrew Hirschman was in a company under Campbell's authority at Sandusky. Captain Etherington, who was also stationed at Detroit, reported on September 1, , that the time of two of his soldiers, Jacob Lamplan and George Peighthal, had expired,.
There were annoying events during Bouquet's time, which go to show that there is really very little that is new under the sun. In it was quite necessary that communication be kept up with Mackinaw, entailing transport by water. On September 24, , Lieut. Jehu Hay wrote to Gen. Bouquet that "there is not enough water in Lake St. Claire to carry the vessels through to Lake Huron," and that "the sand-bars now run away out into the lake," a condition not wholly different from that charged to be the result of the construction of the Chicago canal in a much later period.
An Early Social Incident Hambach's plea to Bouquet to send out some rum to Detroit "for to sell it to inhabitants of this place," seems to have been answered in the affirmative. In October, , Capt. Campbell, before referred to, was on military duty as far afield as St. Joseph and had Ensign Schlosser as part of his company.
An incident occurred while he was there which may lead one to the conclusion that Capt. Campbell must be set down among that class of gentlemen who did not carry their liquor handily. There was a bit of a party in the wilds at which Capt.
Campbell got into a condition which required Ensign Schlosser to restrain him. Evidently, to head off the results of a complaint and to give Gen. Bouquet the inside of the matter before it came to him officially from Campbell, Hambach sent a letter to the Commander-in-Chief from Fort St. Joseph, October 14, , advising him that, at the recent social event, Mr. Schlosser had been obliged to "control" Capt.
Campbell, "while he was in liquor recently," relating naively that "the gentleman gets what you would call merry, and then being in absolute mastery, it gets into his head. In the latter part of , Capt. Gladwin, the same who had some interesting experiences with Chief Pontiac, reported that among the men discharged from the First Battalion of the Royal American Regiment were Henry Johannes, Jacob Schmorrenberger and Peter Harliman, whose time had expired.
As their names do not appear in later records of the place, the presumption is that they were returned to Montreal and thence to Europe. In Ensigns Prosser and Pauli, of whom we have heard before, wrote to Bouquet from Detroit asking for promotion.
They had to write a second time to remind him, this time asking to be reimbursed for losses in the service, Prosser's claim being eighty pounds and Pauli's seventy pounds. After a short tour of duty there he wrote to Bouquet asking to be permitted to leave the service. He was evidently coaxed to stay, as he appears later in the service of Gen. Haldimand, his cognomen being occasionally Anglicised from "Dietrich" into "David.
He rather favored them himself. His aide-de-camp and confidential inspector was Diedrich Brehm, by this time a Captain, whom he sent up to Detroit on many occasions to keep an eye on both the military and the financial administration. One was pretty closely knit to the other. It cost the British a pretty penny to hold on to the territory which is now Michigan, and as the drafts were all drawn on the Governor-General, Haldimand had much cause for complaint.
He was a rather conscientious auditor. Great expense figures shocked him. He was a voluminous letter writer, and a deal of his correspondence with the commandants at Detroit and Mackinac had. At that, English money was called for in pretty substantial sums. Haldimand's criticisms were not always effective. No sooner had he, in , chided Colonel De Peyster, in charge of Detroit, for sending him a draft for 64, pounds, saying that "the frequency of these amazing demands is a matter of very serious concern to me," than he had another draft the next half year from the same source for 44, pounds.
Counsels of economy meant very little, whether they proceeded from Haldimand or not. The unregenerate modern, who is not carried away with tales of ancient virtue, would be inclined to assume that where there was so much opportunity there was a good deal of "graft. The British government was a sort of a "sucker" for everybody who chose to draw on it. During , drafts for 79, pounds sterling; in for , pounds; in for , pounds; in for , pounds, and in for 48, pounds were paid at Quebec by Haldimand to various persons in authority in Detroit.
Beside these items, , pounds were drawn from the Michilimackinac -post during Haldimand's control. This makes a total of , sterling pounds for military expenses at Detroit and Mackinac during four years. This was better than 4,, dollars directly spent at two frontier posts in that period, besides other expenditures payable at headquarters and overhead costs. Haldimand's papers make it clear that about 10,, dollars were'spent in his time to hold the west, of which Michigan was a part, Besides his apparently justifiable complaints about the spending of money, Haldimand had two other idiosyncrasies which are revealed in his correspondence.
Haldimand insisted on retaining the island as a common for the use of the Crown and the garrison and inhabitants of Detroit. Haldimand thought the island should be devoted to raising food for the garrison at Detroit, which at that time was being victualled from Niagara. He was constantly writing to the local commandant to clear off the usurpers of title. Finally Major De Peyster made a dicker with Mrs. MacDougal to pay her pounds for the improvements on the Island. On the occasion of announcing the happy termination of negotiations to the Governor-General, Major De Peyster slipped him another draft for 14, pounds for expenses, this one almost under the guns of Haldimand's most recent remonstrance against extravagant spending.
While he had no niceties about using them in warfare against the whites, he was anxious to keep them fit, and was strongly averse to their use of rum. In July, , he wrote to Captain Lernoult, at Detroit, chiding him about the amount of rum that had been consumed at Detroit in the preceding year. The quantity seems to have been 17, gallons. Considering that there were only about 1, people in and around the post that year there was hardly a rum famine. The next year Haldimand wrote to De Peyster at Detroit, telling him to withhold rum from the Indians, and stating that he desired it kept from them "because of the pernicious effects it has upon their warriors and young men and the poverty and disease it brings upon their families.
He was a bit of a diplomat at that. Under the Treaty of Nov. General Washington, with a letter from Hudson, N. At Sorel. General Haldimand replied to Washington, saying "that the strict observance of my duty and the rules of war leave me no alternative but to refuse to comply with your requests until I shall be authorized to receive them.
The British did not get out of the territory until Some Early Colonial Period Germans During the years that passed from to there were Germans coming into and going out of what is now Michigan territory with the authority of the British control. Some had been there earlier and were established. Under Jay's Treaty British subjects might remain within the American borders if they saw fit, but must declare their intentions with reference to their nationality.
There had been a good deal of trading in the Mackinac and Sault Ste. Marie territory very early. In among. The last named went up to Mackinac in with a passport from the military authorities at Quebec, which, said the letter of transmissal, "was granted him in consideration of his creditors. John George Zanelius was a trader at the same time at Mackinac.
There was a Sergeant Hartman in the British force at Mackinac in Francis Diehl's name was on the roll of the Indian department at Detroit in , as reported to Haldimand. He was a smith at the Shawnee Town and Melchior Becker was a rifle-cutter. They got twelve pounds apiece per year for pay. When a census was made of the Loyalists of Detroit in by Lieut. Two years before that Col.
De Peyster, in arranging for a shipment of American prisoners to Niagara wrote, as his opinion, that "I suppose it is not intended that the families mostly German, who have taken oaths and are settled on farms, should be included. They were the two Schiffleins, Jacob and Jonathan.
They were brothers, of Hessian origin. They were among those of the group who were patriated in Upper Canada after the Revolution. They had one trait in common. That was acquisitiveness. Neither seems to have failed to get what he wanted for failure of asking for it, Jacob Schifflein was appointed, June, , a First Lieutenant of the Detroit Volunteers, accompanied General Hamilton to Vincennes, where he was made a prisoner.
He got to New York and Quebec in On Oct. In he asked General Haldimand for some extra pay for his services and hardships, and during the year he got pounds and some shillings and pence in requital. In October of the same year he got a grant of land from the Huron and Ottawa Indians, seven miles square, on the Canadian side of the river, opposite the lower end of Bois Blanc Island and near the present Amherstburg.
Jonathan Schifflein had 'similar military experiences with the British. In a memorial made August 20, , to Lord Guy Dorchester, Governor-General of Canada, he recited that "in , being ever-ready to support the unity of the empire and the rights of the Crown over her rebel subjects," he went on an expedition under General Hamilton against the fort at Vincennes and he would like to get an extra half pay for it.
He collected. He was eager for the ownership of land. In August, , he had Capt. Alexander McKee certify that he had served in several expeditions carried on from Detroit against the enemy's frontiers. This certificate turned up in a claim for added compensation. In he asked the Committee of the Council for a grant of acres on the Detroit river.
He got it, and it was subsequently confirmed to him by the land commissioners as Private Claim No. His name appears on a multitude of pay-rolls and expense accounts. An Ancient Land Scandal Under the treaty of November, , the British agreed to give up the western forts, including those in Michigan, on or before a given date in During this interval Schifflein was exceedingly busy.
Together with Jacobus Visgar, an Albany man of Dutch extraction, and some other associates he was busy at procuring grants of land from the Indians. There was formality or informality about these cessions, as best suited the purpose of Schifflein. A good deal of rum appears to have been used as a lubricant for the negotiations with the Indians. These transfers turned up promptly in a curious transaction. Robertson, John Askin, Jr. This land had an area then estimated at from eighteen to twenty million acres and the sale was to be based on the understanding that the grantees would extinguish the Indian title.
A stock company of forty-one shares was formed. Five shares went to the Detroit partners, a full share going to Schifflein. Twelve shares went to the Philadelphia and Vermont men, who were to furnish for them , dollars of capital, with liability for an assessment of as much more, if that amount of capital were found necessary for the completion of the project.
Twenty-four shares were to be divided among members of the Congress for their votes. The Philadelphia men enlisted the adherence of some of the southern members of the Congress, and sought to interest Daniel Buck and Theodore Sedgeman, Representatives from Vermont. Robert Randall claimed that he had a majority of voters pledged to a favorable vote in the Senate in December, , and lacked only three votes in the House.
The Vermont men told about the scheme to President Washington and on December 28, , it was exposed in the House of Representa. As a result there was an investigation and a scandal that compared favorably with those relating to the Credit Mobilier and Teapot Dome subjects in later congressional history. There were admissions of interest in the scheme, but the scandal died out with no punishment of the participants. Meantime Schifflein and his Detroit associates were quite busy in obtaining grants from the Indians.
For instance, in July, , a special council was held with certain Chippewa, Ottawa and Pottawatamie chiefs, in the neighborhood of present Owosso, in which deeds were given by the Indians to lands covering fourteen present counties of the state for twenty-five pounds sterling. When the scheme went to pieces, the operators still had their Indian colors of title, and these they sold in for , pounds New York currency, the equivalent of half a million dollars. Shortly thereafter Schifflein retired from the scene of his frontier operations and took up his home in western New York.
There was no special racial turpitude discoverable in this transaction. Schifflein had good Yankee, Irish and Scotch associates in his enterprise, and the operation and its morals were both characteristic of a period of adventure and speculation. Their likes are to be found in much of the early real estate history of the country. Germans of the British Period There were other Germans in the territory during these latest years of British occupation.
A group of discharged loyalists asked for grants of land in the District of Hesse in Their names suggest their origin. Israel Ruland, born on Long Island in , of German descent, came to Detroit in and bound himself to Garret Graeverat for forty pounds, to serve until he should come of age. He was arrested for American sympathies in Ten years later he was a sil.
He got twelve pounds a month. The British carried away with them four volumes of the records of deeds at Detroit, three of which were recovered a century later through the courtesy of the government of the Dominion of Canada. The fourth was recently located. There were many sequels of the occupation which indicated the presence of Germans. William Treigehen applied to the British to compensate him for losses sustained in the Mackinac country.
Just before the evacuation, Gother Mann,. Lieutenant Jacob Radenhorst was a British officer at Mackinac at the same time. William Claus, who was Deputy Superintendent General of the Indian affairs, moved off to Fort George, where he held office as late as Nor were the military occupations the only sources of German settlement in the present territory of Michigan.
The British, despite the American victory in the War of the Revolution and the treaties made at its close, were pretty hopeful of. One incident of these campaigns was a sortie made in by Capt. Henry Bird, an English army officer, with a force of white men and a thousand savages. Among his whites were Simon Girty, Matthew Elliott and Alexander McKee, experts in the art of inciting Indians to war upon the Americans, and men whose names will ever be.
This expedition was directed against Ohio and Kentucky. Kratz was born at Teutonhofen, near Frankfort-on Main, in , and in was brought to America as one of the Hessian troops hired out to King George. He was captured at Saratoga, imprisoned for a while in Virginia, set free, and made his way into Kentucky, where he married. On their capture by the English and Indians man and wife were given as slaves to different Indian masters, and brought to Detroit in different convoys.
Kratz's baby was killed en route. They were reunited at Detroit, where they lived some years, finally being established at Amherstburg, Ont. These were the high lights of the British period of dominion over Michigan, showing the presence of Germans in its present area, drawn thither by one reason or another. For the purposes of this history it is sufficient to show they were in the territory. The colonial period of the history of Michigan ended in Up to that time the present area of the state had, as has been shown, a sprinkling of people of German blood in its sparse population, these having been drawn thereto by various exigencies of adventure, trade or military occupation.
With the beginning of the control of the United States there came a parting of the ways. People of all kinds who were then located, including those of German blood, made choice of their sovereignty, as was provided for in the treaty of peace, and many who were loyal to the British Crown withdrew from the territory altogether. Those who remained took on a new status, that of American citizens, among them a proportion of those of German origin.
There were quite a number of these, so many as to be noticeable in a small population. Herman Melchior Eberts, who had been in the settlement since , became Sheriff of Wayne county. He started a set of books on his dues from his patients, beginning with the first day of The entries show that he had several people of German names among them.
Incidentally these records survive. In Maria Faser was his patient. In Anthony Roth was the ben. In Francis Becker, and in John Fisher, and in William Koester appear to have been given opportunities to profit by his physic, while in Paul Ramte was among his patients. At this period of the world's history the Germanic people were not much tempted to roam afar from their homeland.
The conditions in the Germanic Kingdoms were not unprosperous and the temptations to stray were not strong. There had been an earlier American immigration from Germany, but its sources and its destinations were confined to definite places on the seaboard and others not far inland, and it was now history. There were among the Germans, as among every other race, a minority who were affected by the wanderlust, and who, as sailors, or traders, or preachers of the Gospel, went far afield.
Their percentage was small as compared to the mass. So that it was not until the religious disquietude of onward and the political disturbances of the late '40's of the nineteenth century that any great mass emigration of the Germans to the Midlands of North America took place. Before that there had been some stray Germans in Michigan, as there had been some stray Irishmen, an Italian or two or three, and a few representatives of some other breeds.
For that matter the stray Germans were in Michigan as early as any of the rest. The first of these, and the first recorded German inhabitant of the present area of Michigan, was Michael Yax. He appears to have been a settler in the Pennsylvania colony at Germantown, when he started in to the Point Coupee colony of Germans in Mississippi, who had been settled there in John Law's "Mississippi Bubble" colonization scheme of and thereafter. He was taken a prisoner by the Indians on the way, by a band of Ottawas from Detroit, probably at some point in Kentucky, into which the Detroit Indians made forays from time to time.
They brought him to the fort at Detroit, together with his wife and his child, and they were ransomed by M. This was in His wife, Catherine Herkinee, was originally a Lutheran, but in , she joined the Roman Catholic faith by a solemn profession, the history of which Pere Simple Bouquet set down at much length in the baptismal register of St. Anne's Church. This record establishes the racial identity of Yax and his wife as "both of German origin.
Yax died in and Michael Yax himself in They were both buried from St. The family settled in Grosse Pointe, some of them drifted into present Macomb county, in the neighborhood of Chesterfield, and their posterity are still numbered among the population of Detroit and its vicinity.
To Yax and his wife is definitely assignable the distinction of being the first German-born man and woman in a Michigan settlement, Yax himself as the first Roman Catholic German and his wife as the first Lutheran, until her union with her husband's religious communion. Anthon, of fhom we will see more later, was a surgeon at the fort of Detroit under Gen. Haldimand's tenure of military authority, as early as There were a few officers of German names with the British toward the latter end of their occupation of Detroit and Mackinaw.
Edward Henn, of the Sixth Regiment, and Capt. Schalch, of the Royal Artillery, were on a board of survey which condemned six guns at Detroit in Burgoyne" to Thomas Duggan, clerk of the Indian Department. Darias had evidently deserted the British side and been apprehended.
Some Important Land Holdings When the Land Commissioners came to confirm the titles to the private claims under the provisions of the treaty which extinguished the British title in Michigan, they appear from the records contained in American State Papers to have been somewhat exacting in their requirements of testimony regarding the continued, hostile, open and notorious ownership of the various claimants. Quite naturally these were mostly persons of French blood, and these confirmations of title, made from onward, were nearly all based on claims of occupancy and ownership running back twenty and thirty years anterior to the dates of confirmation.
Despite the dominance of French claimants, there were even then some names which showed unmistakable German origin. For instance, Private Claim No. The last mentioned has already been identified in these pages. One of the private claims was confirmed to Michael Yax, or Yacks, the spelling of whose name varies in different documents, and a son of the Michael Yax who was the first German in Michigan. Elliott Cemetery, Detroit, indicates that he was "the friend of the immortal Washington" and that his fellow-officers provided for the elaborately inscribed marker which is still preserved over his remains.
The origin of John Francis Hamtramck, whose name is linked with the local geography of Wayne County, has been variously related. Actually he was born in Quebec, of German parents from Trier. He gave a good account of himself in his generation, was considered a good soldier by Gen.
Anthony Wayne, and was sent to Michigan to take over, in the name of the American government, the command of Detroit, upon its relinquishment by the British after the close of the war of Hamtramck died at the age of 42, and his son, John Francis Hamtramck, Jr. In other parts of Michigan there were some early Germans. Martin Heydenburk was a school teacher at Mackinac in His grandfather was a German, one of the Hessian troops sent out to assist the British in the Revolutionary War, who took the first opportunity to desert them as soon as he discovered the rights of the controversy.
He hated England so intensely that he conducted some annual derisive rite on the anniversary of his desertion, consisting, some say, of a vigorous stamping on the British ensign. His grandson, Martin, remained at Mackinac for nine years, later settling in the neighborhood of White Pigeon, and being identified with religious activities all his life. Henry M. Utley, in "Michigan as Province, Territory and State", say that "as early -as.. So far as it is possible to trace, the next German settler di not'F arrive untif 12S.
These were New York and New England immigrants who were looking to better their conditions by making homes for themselves in a new and fertile country where land was cheap. In more public land was sold in Michigan than in all the preceeding years from to put together. With this swelling tide of immigration there were doubtless many people of foreign birth, who, arriving in the country, were swept into the westward advancing column.
Its house of worship was built about two miles west of the present site of Ann Arbor Court House and was dedicated in December oi the same year. This church was in charge of Pastor Frederick Schmid, who was sent as a missionary to the state by the Basle Evangelical Missionary Society. German congregations were founded in in Detroit and Monroe. They were administered by Pastor Schmid and others. A Roman Catholic missionary, writing of this period, gives his testimony of the situation in the following language: "Real German life, as it is found in American states, one can find in Michigan only in three places, for in all other places our people are too scattered to form congregations that might support a German preacher.
The members of the two congregations live in harmony with one another, and never allow their religious differences to interfere with their social intercourse. At marriages and baptisms they are never concerned about which preacher they should choose, but that they should have a good time in the German fashion.
A large number of Germans remain in the city only so long as to earn money enough to buy land outside and establish farms. The Germans there came largely from Wurtemburg, and are under the Protestant preacher, the Reverend Mr. Their grain and cattle are unsurpassed in Michigan. Kopp, from Westphalia. The colony is called Westphalia. The mission movement had dotted the lower part of the state with many German settlements.
Pastor Schmid had started several such places. The Loehe-trained pastors, of whom more is told later on, had done much toward colonization in other sections, principally in the Saginaw valley and the country eastward to Lake Huron. The other leading early settlements were in Monroe, Washtenaw and Macomb.
There were a good many Germans in Wayne. Their industry and thrift as farmers had made a good impression on their fellow-citizens. Epaphroditus Ransom, of Kalamazoo county, became Governor in He was a man of much learning and foresight. He had been for twelve years previous to his governorship a Judge of the Supreme Court.
He was a Vermont man, where his preceptor in the law was Peter R. He was a progressive agriculturist and stock breeder. He induced the Legislature of to pass legislation favorable to immigration and the purchase of state lands by newcomers.
Under the hat, the state really needed the proceeds of the land sales for its treas. The German-American element of the population of Michigan may well look upon Mr. Thompson as their foster-father in citizenship. Spending part of his time in New Yotk and part in Stuttgardt, Germany, he directed what the state's official papers describe as"a stream of valuable emigrants to the state.
Read in the light of today's economics of Michigan it is an interesting picture of the basis of state hopes as painted nearly 80 years ago. To begin with, very little is said of the Upper Peninsula. The map of desirable land for settlers is colored to attract attention to Sanilac, Tuscola, Genesee, Saginaw, Shiawassee, Midland and Gratiot counties.
The present city of Grand Rapids is not marked upon it. Saginaw is marked, but not Lower Saginaw, or Bay City. Mackinaw and Sault Ste. Marie are the only Upper Peninsula cities named. The river system is shown with much accuracy. The text bears upon the extent of lake commerce, the imports,nd exports of the state, and the production of the various staples.
Not more stress could be laid upon the excellence of the modern road system than was then laid upon the "magnificent" system of wagon roads, which included one dirt highway from Detroit westward, another from Detroit to Fort Gratiot, still another from Detroit to Saginaw, with Pontiac and Flint on the way.
The remainder of the roads were mere plains trails. The township and sectional survey system. The characteristics of the soils, whether of clay, sand or loam, are set up. Above all, there is a rhapsody about the German settlements already made and the religious attentions given their inhabitants by Pastors Craemer, Sievers and Graebner. The names of these pioneer German Lutheran missionaries were used to charm many a group of their race into the new country.
The Prices of Land One's money went quite a distance in buying land in those days. The highest price was the "ten shilling land," that which was sold by the state at a dollar and a quarter an acre. Some more could be gotten as low as 9C cents an acre. As a matter of fact, state warrants were at a discount, could be used to pay for land, and by ingenious financing through their use land could be gotten as cheaply as 75 cents an acre.
It made some difference what kind of German and other European money one had with which to do his land-buying. The Hamburg bank mark was worth 35 cents. The reichsthaier of Prussia and North Germany was worth 69 cents, but the reichsthaler of Bremen went for 78 cents. Prussian gulden were worth 22 cents, but the Basle gulden exchanged for 41 cents.
The livre of Neufchatel had a value of 26 cents. The Saxon reichsthaler had an equal value with that from Prussia, but the Rhenish reichsthaler was worth but 60 cents. Austrian gulden had a value of 48 cents. So the invitation ran on in words of pride and hopefulness about Michigan, purposefully made attractive to its German readers, bidding them gather their bank marks and their reichsthalers, their gulden and their livres together, come to Michigan and settle its lands. When they arrived at Detroit, if they needed guidance and direction, they were to ask their way of the late Mr.
Chauncy Hurlbut, the kindly old pioneer merchant, who, dying without kin, made the. The truth of this information was carefully certified by the Mayor of the City of New York, the President of the German Society thereof, and the President of the Swiss Welfare Society, of the same city, and was relayed to the public through the German press with such success that within a year 2, Wurtemburgers came to America, most of them to Michigan.
Thcmpson's propaganda had an odd and a lasting effect in Germany. Some of his travels led him into other parts of the country, where he impressed the resourcefulness of America in general and Michigan in particular upon financiers and capitalists. The reaction from this educational process was discovered some years later when William Walton Murphy, of Jonesville, became Consul-General of the United States at Frankfort-on-Main, just after the beginning of the American civil war, and was able to place the early issues of war bonds of the United States with the Frankfort bankers at a time that their acceptance as a promising investment was being refused in the English money market.
From this time onward German immigration came into Michigan in great volume. It was accelerated by various causes. One was the correspondence with the mission colonies and the scattered Auswanderer, who were doing well and were enthusiastic about their new home-land. Another was the actual necessity of the "Forty-Eighters" finding a new and safe abiding place where conditions fitted in with their ideas of democracy.
Not the least, again, was the commercial side of the traffic as it affected the fortunes of the steamship lines operators, who promoted the immigration actively, as their forbears had done two centuries before. Incidentally the first through steamship ticket from Hamburg to Michigan was sold as early as , by the late Richard R.
Elliott, of Detroit. How this immigration accumulated Germans in Michi. The Works of the Newcomers From this time forward the influence of the Germanic immigrants to Michigan must be traced by their works. They had given up an old allegiance and taken upon themselves a new one.
They came to participate in and enjoy the liberties of a free country, in one of its most promising sovereignties. They came to apply the parable of Stephen Decatur, "My country, may she be ever right, but right or wrong, my country. They brought with them skill in peculiar trades and craftsmanships, to be fitted into the economics of a newer country than that which they had left, and to be made their contributions to the economic common good. They brought certain cultivated attainments and aspirations, to be freely given and adapted to the growing civilization with which they were joining as a part and a factor; these being mostly in the line of educational wealth and potential contributions therefrom, as well as refinements in music and other arts to which no American group, and particularly none in Michigan, had, prior to their advent, the opportunity to give much attention, largely because of the hardships incident to the foundation period.
Therefore, from this time forward one must measure the Germanic influence in the making of Michigan by what it did for the state along the various lines of endeavor hereinbefore indicated; and the further developments of this study of the subject will be confined to these topics, considered as broadly or as intimately as may be necessary for a distinctness which is not meant to be encyclopedic.
The United States Census of was, as we look upon such economic data nowadays, a modest and rather useless compilation for any purpose outside its primary one of providing the information upon which representation in the Congress should be based. The same was true of the Census of Neither of these collections of facts about the population took account of native-born or foreign, let alone the interesting facts of origins by place or race.
The Census of was an improvement. The question of negro slavery was becoming important and a deal of attention was given to the figures concerning the number of white males and females, and the number of black slaves and black freemen, both men and women. For the first time some attention was paid to the respective conditions of native-born and foreignborn.
There were , people in the whole state in Of these there were 42, in Wayne county and 28, in Washtenaw county, which were in that year the most popu-. The foreign-born of all extractions in the state in numbered 30, men and 23, women. No segregation into their origins was officially made. In the direction of the census extended the scope.
That year there were found , people of all kinds in Michigan. Of these 38, were Germans by birth, or approximately 5. Of these, again, 16, were described simply as of German birth, with no reference to their territorial extractions. Of the remainder, were Austrians who were grouped with the Germans. Then there were 2, from Baden; 1, from Hesse; from Nassau; 9, from Prussia and 4, from Wurtemburg.
Territorial Origins In the Census of there was more exactness in the inquiry as to the territorial origins of the German-born who were counted that year in Michigan. The total population of the state had grown in a decade to 1,, Of that total the residents, citizens and alien, of German birth, numbered 64,, nearly 5.
Bv this time, however, there had come up more than a full generation of native-born Americans, whose fathers and mothers were immigrants from the German States, and an estimate has been made that this native generation, living when the census of was taken, numbered, at the very least, an additional 98, souls. At any rate, of the foreign-born included in the enumeration, there were 4, from Baden; 6, from Bavaria; 86 from Brunswick; from Hamburg; 1, from Hanover; 2, from Hesse; 5 from Luebeck; 5, from Mecklenburg; from Nassau; 54 from Oldenburg; 28, fronr Prussia; from Saxony; 82 from Weimar; 8, from Wurtemburg; and 4, who were registered, generally as "German.
Between and the term "German" had come to have a distinctive national significance and it is not sur. The total population of Michigan in was 1,, Of these 88, were native-born German people, this time again 5. By this time, also, two full generations of the posterity of the earlier accessions had come up, amounting, by an empirical estimate, to approximately , persons of native birth and German blood, in addition to 88, who were born abroad.
The federal Census of , seemingly, had as its keynote the provision of figures upon which to base several economic theories connected with the labor movement, and outside the figures on these topics the statistical usefulness of the work is limited. By the time of its taking, "Germany" had become a common source of origin for the foreign-born who came from that country, and the earlier political subdivisions were neglected.
The number of foreign-born in Michigan in was ,, out of a total population of 2,, Of this more than half million foreign-born, the Germans were ,, the Austrians 3, and those from Luxemburg They began to have a more distinctive distribution over the state. The greatest group, 43,, were in Wayne county; the next largest, 9,, in Saginaw county; while there were in Macomb 4,; Berrien 3,; Huron 3,; Kent 4,; Lenawee 2,; Monroe 3,; St.
Clair 3, and Washtenaw 4, It will be noted that by , after a period of 40 years of active entry of Germans into Michigan, resulting to some extent from the state's own invitations to immigrants, the percentage substantially increased, rising to 6. Meantime the fecuri4ity of the race was asserting. This greater figure includes the lesser one of , of actual foreign-born given hereinbefore, and must not be added to it. It does show that in , of the entire population of Michigan By the state had grown to have a population of 2,, souls.
Despite the increase, the total of foreignborn had experienced a falling off, both in its total and in its percentage relation. The total number of all kinds of foreign-born people in the state in that year was ,, compared with , ten years before.
The total number of foreign-born creditable to German sources was ,, while 20, Poles were credited to that race, although they were born in territory under German dominion, and 6, Austrians were in the state. No accurate statistics of American parentage with definite foreign origins were provided this year, except that the total number of residents of Michigan in who were of foreign parentage, one or both, was ,, a gain over the figures for , as the result of two causes.
One of these was the fecundity of the races, which the German-Americans enjoyed in common with all the other strains, the other that the second generation from the pioneers was farther along in the period of its formation. Twentieth Century Changes The greatest changes in the population of the state occurred between and By the population of Michigan had increased to 2,,, of whom , were foreign-born. During the next decade the state's population went up to 3,,, of whom , were foreign-born. Of these 86, were of German birth, while about , Applying some empirical rules of growth, none of which are absolute, it is calculated that in the population of Michigan included about , people of German blood, either actually foreign born, the descendants of one or both German parents, or natives who were the descendants of German grandparents through nativeborn parents.
From this point onward, through the operation of restrictive immigration laws, the absolute cessation of German immigration from to , and the dying off of the foreign-born stock, the number of persons of German birth must be expected to fall off, while the number of those of near or remote Germanic origin will continue to grow at a percentage quite equal to the growth of the total population of the state.
Of the totalpopulation of the state in , To appreciate the processes of settlement of Michigan by the various contributions to its population one must follow the history of the gateways into the territory which now composes its area.
The earliest gateway was by that of the St. Lawrence River and the lakes. By that route came the French explorers, the British conquerors and the few Germans who are recorded in the Colonial period. That was the highway of the fur trade. The second was the Ohio gateway, the westerly end of trails beginning at Pittsburgh and leading to Marietta, and thence by the foot of Lake Erie into Eastern Michigan, or along the Cumberland pike and from it northward into what is now Southern and Western Michigan.
This was a route rendered fairly safe from Indian assailants, and through it, in wagon trains or on horseback, eastern and southeastern Americans found their way to the Old Northwest. The east, as has been shown herein, had many early Germanic settlements, and of its emigrants to the Northwest the German-Americans formed a considerable percentage.
This accounts for the early prevalence of people of this breed in Southern Michigan to the west of Detroit. The third gateway was the Erie Canal. New York was the great port of entry for European immigration, and the Erie Canal and the Great Lakes furnished a ready access to the new country where lands were cheap and futures promis.
This route, even when the railroads got as far west as Buffalo and a rail and lake journey from the Atlantic became available, was most commonly used by the immigrating millions who came into the United States from to A due proportion of Germans traversed it, like the rest. An understanding of these gateways gives the key to the presence of people of German blood in Michigan during several eras and their distribution into various sections.
It has already been shown that a few came through the Laurentian gateway. Those who were early and scattered settlers in Southern Michigan were second and third-growth products from the earlier Germanic settlements from New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania and from as far as Maryland and Virginia.
The group who came out to form peasant missions and the refugees from the consequences of the '48 Revolution came by way of the Erie Canal. In the cases of both these latter classifications, the city of Detroit constituted the sieve which separated those who 'were determined to be agriculturists from those to whom the blandishments of cities were attractive.
The Unimpressive Beginnings Most of the early Germans whose settlement in Michigan was not derived from the patriation in Canada located in and around Detroit. In thirty-nine foreigners, not naturalized, were residents of Detroit, the majority of them Germans. These were added to by accessions detailed farther along in this record.
In they had become numerous enough to form separate religious congregations. Even while there were quite a few Germans in Michigan in the earlier decades of the nineteenth century, their contemporaries did not seem to be impressed by their presence. The late Mr. Robert E. Roberts, who, as a pioneer of the early city, made many contributions to its written history, discussed the early population of Detroit in a letter which appeared in the Detroit Free Press, May 8, Writing of a period fifty.
This, of course, was not so, but it indicates the small impression which the Germans who were present made upon native fellow citizens. Levi Bishop, the author of the epic poem, "Teuchsa Grondie," in which the traditional Indian history of the city of Detroit is told, when speaking of the period around , said that the population of Michigan at that time included, besides the Americans and the French, "some English, some Germans and a few from Hungary.
Bishop, who came into the state from Buffalo about the year of which he was talking, referred to the French who had been in Michigan two hundred years ahead of him as "foreigners"; showing that some modern solecisms are not so modern after all. Yax, Simon Yax and Peter Yax among the land-holders in the district, their lands being in the present Macomb County area, in the neighborhood of Chesterfield, and some in present Grosse Pointe.
In what was then called Sargent township, now part of Macomb County, Joseph Blein was also rated as a land-holder at the same time. Christian Clemens, the founder of Mt. Clemens, was on the St. Clair township list. Everts, colloquially described as "a Dutchman," was located at Frederick, on. When B. Witherell took the territorial census for the district of Detroit in , the city had a population of 2,, and among the names of the residents appeared those of Julius Eldred, Wilhelm Firehaudt, John Steinback, John Streit, John Kremer and Peter Yax.
There were some German immigrants who came to Michigan in the '30's. Michigan was then mostly Detroit. Peter Machris, from the-boundary of Lorraine, came to Detroit in. Peter was a laborer for Gen. Lamed for a while and then became a shoe dealer. John Bour, an Alsatian shoemaker, came in the same year as Machris. That was the year that John Maladon came to Detroit. John Schmittdiel was also in Detroit in The following year Andreas Huber, a carpenter from Baden, arrived.
He married Schmittdiel's daughter. The Greusel family came in the same year. Weber's wife had come with her father, Joseph Laible, the year before. Conrad Seek was the city's leading tailor in that time. Ward started his career at General Electric, working in a variety of finance and management positions. He attended Indiana University Bloomington and holds a bachelor of science degree in finance. Previously he was executive vice president, Corrugated Containers, for WestRock, and at RockTenn, was senior vice president and general manager of Corrugated Containers.
Jeff began his career in the paper industry following a four-year tour of duty in the U. Army, where he served as an officer. Previously, Pat served as executive advisor to private equity firm New Mountain Capital and chief operating officer for W. Prior to joining W.
Gore, he served in various leadership roles with E. He has a passion for innovation, diversity and inclusion as well as environmental sustainability as drivers of exceptional business performance. Fuller, a global manufacturer of specialty chemicals. Prior to joining WestRock, Rajiv served as the global vice president, research and technology — textiles for Huntsman Corporation as well as the vice president and chief technology officer — Advanced Materials for Honeywell International.
Rajiv earned bachelor of science and master of science degrees in organic chemistry from Bombay University and a doctorate degree in organic chemistry from the University of Missouri. He has published 80 publications and holds 50 patents. Nina Butler is chief environmental officer and associate general counsel. Previously she was senior vice president and senior environmental counsel for RockTenn. Nina joined RockTenn in with the acquisition of Smurfit-Stone, where she served as senior environmental counsel.
Brandi Colander is Chief Sustainability Officer at WestRock Company, where she leads the development and execution of a strategy to deliver innovative and sustainable solutions to customers around the world. Prior to joining WestRock, Brandi was a Principal at The Raben Group, supporting clients by advancing their policy and strategy needs, as well as Head of External Relations with Charter Communications creating diverse partnerships and philanthropic investments.
Donna Owens Cox is chief communications officer, which includes responsibility for corporate giving programs. Previously she was vice president of global communications and brand for MWV. Donna joined MWV's Forestry Division in and served in communications leadership roles across operations and corporate until being asked to lead the global communications function in Pete Durette is the chief strategy officer and executive vice president leading the corrugated container business within the Corrugated Packaging segment.
He also oversees the strategy development activities for the company. Margaret Herndon is chief marketing officer, leading the company-wide marketing organization including the planning, activation and oversight of the enterprise marketing strategy. Prior to joining WestRock, Margaret served as chief marketing officer at Ericsson North America where she was responsible for leading marketing and communications strategy.
Margaret also spent 10 years with Hewlett-Packard, holding senior leadership positions in software, enterprise services and corporate marketing. She is an active leader in diversity and inclusion, as well as community outreach. Amir Kazmi is chief information and digital officer, responsible for developing and executing the global information systems and technology strategy.
In addition, Amir is leading our digital transformation. Previously he was chief executive officer for a nanomaterials startup. He has also held various leadership positions at Lockheed Martin within information technology, research and development, and strategic business growth. Amir earned a bachelor's of science degree in computer science from Mount Saint Mary's University and a master's of science degree in systems engineering from Johns Hopkins University.
Bob McIntosh is executive vice president, general counsel and secretary. Previously he was executive vice president, general counsel and secretary for RockTenn.
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