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A betting vice president bettingsports lotterysweepor office pool if done pool betting definition work, is a form of gamblingspecifically a variant of parimutuel betting influenced by lotterieswhere gamblers pay a fixed price into a pool from which taxes and a house "take" or "vig" are removedand then make a selection on an outcome, usually related to sport. In an informal game, the vig is usually quite small or non-existent. The pool is evenly divided between those that have made the correct selection. There are no odds involved; each winner's payoff depends simply on the number of gamblers and the number of winners. True parimutuel bettingwhich was historically referred to as pool betting, involves both odds calculations and variable wager amounts.

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Moto concept 57800 betting calculator

We hypothesized that oxidative stress results in redox disruptions that extend to the ER, causing accumulation of misfolded peptides, which activates the unfolded protein response UPR. We show that expression of key UPR components, including the transcription factor X-box binding protein 1 XBP1 , are increased following exposure of melanocytes to phenols. Thus, melanocytes themselves produce cytokines associated with activation of an immune response following exposure to chemical triggers of vitiligo.

These results expand our understanding of the mechanisms underlying melanocyte loss in vitiligo and pathways linking environmental stressors and autoimmunity. Vitiligo-inducing phenols activate the unfolded protein response in melanocytes resulting in upregulation of IL 6 and IL 8.

Vitiligo is characterized by depigmented skin patches caused by loss of epidermal melanocytes. Oxidative stress may have a role in vitiligo onset, while autoimmunity contributes to disease progression. In this study, we sought to identify mechanisms that link disease triggers and spreading of lesions. We used 4-tertiary butyl phenol and monobenzyl ether of hydroquinone, known triggers of vitiligo. We show that expression of key UPR components, including the transcription factor X-box-binding protein 1 XBP1 , is increased following exposure of melanocytes to phenols.

Polarized secretion of interleukin IL - 6 and IL - 8 by human airway epithelia 16HBE14o- cells in response to cationic polypeptide challenge. Target cells of the epithelium can respond to a variety of inflammatory mediators and cytokines. Damage to the surface epithelium occurs following the secretion of eosinophil-derived, highly toxic cationic proteins.

Moreover, the surface epithelium itself is responsible for the synthesis and release of cytokines that cause the selective recruitment, retention, and accumulation of various inflammatory cells. To mimic the damage seen during asthmatic inflammation, the bronchial epithelium can be challenged with highly charged cationic polypeptides such as poly-L-arginine.

Cytokine antibody array data showed that seven inflammatory mediators were elevated out of the 40 tested, including marked elevation in interleukin IL - 6 and IL - 8 secretion. IL - 6 and IL - 8 secretion by 16HBE14o- epithelia into the apical compartment was significantly higher than that from the basolateral compartment.

This apically directed secretion of cytokines may play an important role in orchestrating epithelial cell responses to inflammation. Corneal infections are frequent and potentially vision-threatening diseases, and despite the significance of the immunological response in animal models of microbial keratitis MK , it remains unclear in humans. The aim of this study was to describe the cytokine profile of tears in patients with MK. Characteristics of ocular lesions such as size of the epithelial defect, stromal infiltration, and hypopyon were analyzed.

Non-significant differences were observed in the size of the epithelial defect, stromal infiltration, and hypopyon. Nevertheless, we found an immunological profile apparently related to MK etiology. Characterization of tear cytokines from patients with MK could aid our understanding of the immune pathophysiological mechanisms underlying corneal damage in humans. This tumor is treated by wide surgical excision and causes various problems, including changes in facial countenance and mastication disorders.

Ameloblastomas have abundant tumor stroma, including fibroblasts and immune cells. Although cell-to-cell interactions are considered to be involved in the pathogenesis of many diseases, intercellular communications in ameloblastoma have not been fully investigated. In this study, we examined interactions between tumor cells and stromal fibroblasts via soluble factors in ameloblastoma. We used a human ameloblastoma cell line AM-3 ameloblastoma cells , human fibroblasts HFF-2 fibroblasts , and primary-cultured fibroblasts from human ameloblastoma tissues, and analyzed the effect of ameloblastoma-associated cell-to-cell communications on gene expression, cytokine secretion, cellular motility and proliferation.

Treatment with conditioned medium from AM-3 ameloblastoma cells upregulated gene expression and secretion of IL - 6 and IL - 8 of HFF-2 fibroblasts and primary-cultured fibroblast cells from ameloblastoma tissues. In conclusion, ameloblastoma cells and stromal fibroblasts behave. Clinical significance of determination of changes of serum IL - 6 , IL - 8 , IL and IL levels after treatment in patients with chronic renal diseases.

Remarkably increased level were seen in acute myocardial infarction group. They play an important role in the pathogenesis through mutual induction and synergistic actions. Effect of Lipoglycans from Mycobacterium Chelonae on the expression of inflammatory factors IL - 8 and IL - 6 in human corneal epithelial cells and its possible signal transduction pathway.

Lipoglycans from Che were purified, by successive detergent and phenol extractions. Lipoglycans were separated by gel filtration on a Sephacryl column and Sephacryl column in series, followed by extensive dialisis. Cells and supernatant were collected at 0, 6, 12, 24h after the stimulation. Compared with the blank control group, the expression of IL - 8 at protein level in the supernatant increased 2.

Full Text Available The cytokine response to heavy exertion varies widely for unknown reasons, and this study evaluated the relative importance of glycogen depletion, muscle damage, and stress hormone changes on blood and muscle cytokine measures.

Muscle glycogen decreased In summary, this study showed that muscle IL - 6 , IL - 8 , and MCP-1 mRNA expression after km cycling was unrelated to glycogen depletion and muscle damage, with change in muscle glycogen related to plasma IL - 6 , and changes in serum myoglobin and cortisol related to the chemotactic cytokines IL - 8 and MCP The levels were measured before induction of anesthesia, at beginning of operation and 1 hr later. To investigate the correlation of the levels of interleukin-8 IL - 8 and IL - 6 in the prostatic fluid with serum levels of serum prostate-specific antigen PSA in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia BPH complicated by prostatitis.

The clinical and laboratory findings were compared between the two groups, and stepwise regression analysis was used to assess the association of IL - 8 and IL - 6 with serum PSA level. Method: One hundred and sixteen adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into 2 groups, ninety-six in the group of open abdominal wound with seawater immersion and 20 in open abdominal wound group control group.

All data were analyzed with statistic software. Results: Compared with the control group, the LPS level in plasma increased with significantly hours after the open abdominal wound with seawater immersion P IL - 6 concentrations significantly increased hours after seawater immersion.

There was no statistical difference in IL - 8 concentrations between the two groups. Whole blood of twenty-seven healthy volunteers was stimulated with LPS and incubated with three different amino acid solutions 1. However, l-alanine had contrary effects on IL - 6 expression, significantly upregulating expression of IL - 6 in LPS-treated monocytes. All rights reserved.

Full Text Available Obesity is an important risk factor for osteoarthritis OA in weight-bearing joints, but also in hand joints, pointing to an obesity-related metabolic factor that influences on the pathogenesis of OA. Leptin is an adipokine regulating energy balance, and it has recently been related also to arthritis and inflammation as a proinflammatory factor.

In the present paper, the effects of leptin on human OA cartilage were studied. These findings support the idea of leptin as a factor enhancing the production of proinflammatory factors in OA cartilage and as an agent contributing to the obesity-associated increased risk for osteoarthritis. Full Text Available HIV-1 envelope protein gp has been extensively studied for neurotoxic effects that have been attributed to the increased expression of various proinflammatory cytokines in the CNS. Recently we have shown that methamphetamine MA also increases expression of proinflammatory cytokines in astrocytes.

However, combined effect of gp and MA is not known. Inhibition of either of these pathways could abrogate the increased expression of IL - 6 due to MA or gp alone, as well as the increased expression of IL - 6 when the astrocytes were treated with both gp and MA. This study therefore provides novel information regarding the interaction between MA and gp in terms of the expression of IL - 6 and the mechanisms underlying potential synergy between MA and gp in astrocytes.

Objective: To investigate the clinical etiological significance of changes of plasma endothelin ET and nitric oxide NO as well as serum interleukin-6 IL - 6 and interleukin-8 IL - 8 levels in patients with pregnancy induced hypertension. Before treatment, the blood ET, IL - 6 and IL - 8 levels were significantly higher in patients with pregnancy induced hypertension than those in the control P IL - 6 and IL - 8 levels were markedly corrected with no significantly differences from those in controls.

Full Text Available Abstract Background Chorioamniotic membranes infection is a pathologic condition in which an abnormal secretion of proinflammatory cytokines halts fetal immune tolerance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the functional response of human chorioamniotic membranes, as well as the individual contribution of the amnion and choriodecidua after stimulation with Escherichia coli, a pathogen associated with preterm labor.

Methods Explants of chorioamniotic membranes from 10 women 37—40 weeks of gestation were mounted and cultured in a Transwell system, which allowed us to test the amnion and choriodecidua compartments independently. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance. Results After stimulation with Escherichia coli, the choriodecidua compartment showed an increase in the secretion of IL-1beta fold, IL - 6 2-fold, IL - 8 6-fold, and IL fold, regardless of which side of the membrane was stimulated; TNFalpha secretion augmented fold also but only when the stimulus was applied simultaneously to both sides.

When the amnion was stimulated directly, the level of IL-1beta fold rose significantly; however, the increase in IL - 8 secretion was larger fold, regardless of the primary site of infection. TNFalpha secretion in the amnion compartment rose markedly only when Escherichia coli was simultaneously applied to both sides.

These tissues were less responsive when the amnion side was stimulated. This is in agreement with the hypothesis that the choriodecidua may play a primary role during an ascending. Background Immunomodulators are substances that modify immune system response to a threat. Immunomodulators modulate and potentiate the immune system, keeping it highly prepared for any threat. The immunomodulatory effect of the traditional medicine Tinospora crispa is investigated in this work.

Methods T. The ethanol extract and effective isolated fraction were used to investigate the potential immunomodulatory effect of different T. The antioxidant activity of T. The total phenolic and total flavonoid contents were also quantified. Results Results show that T. The results also reveal that the total phenolic content of T.

Conclusions The results of this study obviously indicate that T. LC-MS phytochemical analysis showed that the T. Fanconi anemia FA is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder associated with a bone-marrow failure, genome instability, hypersensitivity to DNA crosslinking agents and a predisposition to cancer.

We also demonstrated that these overexpressed secretory factors were effective in promoting the proliferation, migration, and invasion of surrounding tumor cells a fundamental event in the process of epithelial mesenchymal transition EMT and that they also modulated the expression of EMT markers such as E-cadherin and SNAIL. Overall our data suggest that the upregulation of EMT promoting factors in FA may contribute to predisposing FA patients to cancer, thereby providing new insights into possible therapeutic interventions.

After exclusion of women with an adverse pregnancy outcome or those lost to follow-up, consecutive patients were evaluated median parity: 1; range: Cytokine concentrations in amniotic fluid during the mid-trimester did not differ with parity or fetal gender. Further analyses are warranted to establish the role of cytokines in predicting adverse pregnancy outcomes.

Cytokine response plays a vital role in various human lipopolysaccharide LPS infectious and inflammatory diseases. Full Text Available Ozone, a highly reactive oxidant gas is a major component of photochemical smog.

As an inhaled toxicant, ozone induces its adverse effects mainly on the lung. Inhalation of particulate matter has been reported to cause airway inflammation in humans and animals. Furthermore, epidemiological evidence has indicated that exposure to particulate matter PM2.

Previously, exposure to ozone or particulate matter and their effect on the lung have been addressed as separate environmental problems. Ozone and particulate matter may be chemically coupled in the ambient air. In the present study we determined whether ozone exposure enhances DEP effect on interleukin-8 IL - 8 gene expression in human airway epithelial cells. We report that ozone exposure 0. The results of the present study indicate that ozone exposure enhances the toxicity of DEP in human airway epithelial cells by augmenting IL - 8 gene expression, a potent chemoattractant of neutrophils in the lung.

Induction of IL - 6 and inhibition of IL - 8 secretion in the human airway cell line Calu-3 by urban particulate matter collected with a modified method of PM sampling. Exposure to particulate matter PM induces inflammatory cytokines. In the present study, we evaluated the secretion of IL - 6 and IL - 8 by an airway cell line exposed to PM with a mean aerodynamic size equal to or less than 10 or 2.

PM was collected on cellulose-nitrate CN membranes modified for collection on high-volume samplers. Composition of the particles was evaluated by particle-induced X-ray emission PIXE and scanning electron microscopy. An average of 10 mg of PM was recovered form each cellulose-nitrate filter.

No evidence of contamination from the filter was found. A similar but weaker effect was observed with PM 2. In conclusion, our modified sampling method provides a large amount of urban PM free of membrane contamination. The urban particles induce a decrease in IL - 8 secretion that contrasts with the LPS and silica effects.

These results suggest that the regulation of IL - 8 expression is different for urban particles complex mixture containing combustion-related particles, soil and biologic components than for biogenic compounds or pure mineral particles. Alfaro-Moreno, Ernesto, E-mail: ealfaro. Mexico ; Nawrot, Tim S. Objective: To explore the correlationship between SPECT radionuclide bone scan and serum levels of three tumor markers as well as three cytokines in patients with breast cancer.

Results: The serum tumor markers levels in patients osseous metastasis were significantly higher than those in the other three groups P 0. Determination of the levels of these six parameters would be helpful for dynamic monitoring of the extent of metastasis. Tumor-associated macrophages TAMs are known to promote cancer progression and metastasis through the release of a variety of cytokines. We used flow cytometry, coculture, western blotting, invasion assays, real-time quantitative PCR, chromatin immunoprecipitation, luciferase reporter assays, and immunofluorescence staining to determine the effect of TAMs on the ability of PRL-3 to promote invasiveness of CRC cells.

Increased numbers of these cells correlated with higher clinical stage. Our findings suggested that TAMs participate in the. The purpose of this study was to determine if pre-treatment with progesterone has an immunomodulatory effect on human placenta production of endotoxin-induced inflammation and degradation of extracellular matrix markers.

Placentas were obtained under sterile conditions from pregnancies delivered at term before the onset of labor by cesarean section. Explants from central cotyledons of 10 human placentas were pre-treated with different concentrations of progesterone 0. Mifepristone RU blocked the immunosuppressive effect of progesterone. The present results support the concept that progesterone could be part of the compensatory mechanism that limits the inflammation-induced cytotoxic effects associated with an infection process during gestation.

Effect of intravenous lidocaine combined with amitriptyline on pain intensity, clinical manifestations and the concentrations of IL-1, IL - 6 and IL - 8 in patients with fibromyalgia: A randomized double-blind study. Regarding the use of intravenous lidocaine in fibromyalgia, there are no well-controlled studies. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of intravenous lidocaine on pain intensity, clinical manifestations and plasma levels of interleukin IL -1, IL - 6 , and IL - 8 in fibromyalgia patients.

In a randomized double-blind study, group 1 patients received mg of lidocaine in mL of saline solution, while group 2 patients received mL of saline, both once a week for 4 weeks T1, T2, T3 and T4. All patients received amitriptyline. The following were assessed: pain intensity before treatment T0 and at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 8 weeks after treatment; clinical manifestations; the fibromyalgia impact questionnaire FIQ before and at 4 and 8 weeks after; the levels of IL 1, 6 and 8 before and at 4 and 8 weeks after treatment.

Lower pain intensity was observed in the lidocaine group at T2, with no difference at the other time points. There was a reduction in pain intensity in both groups. Clinical manifestations and side effects did not differ between groups. The combination of mg of intravenous lidocaine once a week for 4 weeks with 25 mg of amitriptyline for 8 weeks had no meaningful impact in fibromyalgia patients. Some patients have a greater response to viral infection than do others having a similar level of viral replication.

The benefit produced, or damage caused, by these cytokines in severe disease is not known. The genes that code for these molecules are polymorphic and certain alleles have been associated with susceptibility to various diseases. Case-control study. The controls were patients with infection like to influenza and non-familial healthy contacts of the patients with influenza. Medical history and outcome of the disease was registered.

The logistic regression model was adjusted by age and severity of the illness in cases. Background Some patients have a greater response to viral infection than do others having a similar level of viral replication.

Methods Case—control study. Full Text Available Abstract Background Some patients have a greater response to viral infection than do others having a similar level of viral replication. Human immunodeficiency virus infection is associated with a progressive elevation of viral load and with a continuous destruction of the immune cellular defense system which is marked by immunological and inflammatory disorders characteristic of HIV-infected individuals.

Raised IL - 6 Levels. Positive Zambians before HIV negative Results from this study showed that IL - 6 levels in. Our findings Melatonin suppresses acrolein-induced IL - 8 production in human pulmonary fibroblasts. Cigarette smoke CS causes harmful alterations in the lungs and airway structures and functions that characterize chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD. In addition to COPD, active cigarette smoking causes other respiratory diseases and diminishes health status.

In addition, lung and pulmonary fibroblasts secrete IL - 8 , which has a chemotactic effect on leukocytes, and which in turn, play a critical role in lung inflammation. In this study, we investigated whether melatonin suppresses acrolein-induced IL - 8 secretion in human pulmonary fibroblasts HPFs. Monoamine oxidases MAO are mitochondrial enzymes functioning in oxidative metabolism of monoamines.

The action of MAO-A has been typically described in neuro-pharmacological domains. We employed various in-vitro and in-vivo techniques and clinical samples. Staphylococcus epidermidis polysaccharide intercellular adhesin induces IL - 8 expression in human astrocytes via a mechanism involving TLR2. Staphylococcus epidermidis is an opportunistic biofilm-forming pathogen associated with neurosurgical device-related meningitis.

Expression of the polysaccharide intercellular adhesin PIA on its surface promotes S. Here we investigated the pro-inflammatory properties of PIA against primary and transformed human astrocytes. This effect was inhibited by depletion of N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosamine polymer from the PIA preparation with Lycopersicon esculentum lectin or sodium meta-periodate. Blocking IL-1 had no effect. These data implicate PIA as an important immunogenic component of the S. Factors independently associated with log2-transformed IL - 6 level were identified by multivariate linear regression; exponentiated estimates Nutritional interventions and the IL - 6 response to exercise.

IL - 6 is a pleiotropic cytokine with a wide range of biologic effects. In response to prolonged exercise, IL - 6 is synthesized by contracting skeletal muscle and released into circulation. Circulating IL - 6 is thought to maintain energy status during exercise by acting as an energy sensor for contracting muscle and stimulating glucose production. If tissue damage occurs, immune cells infiltrate and secrete cytokines, including IL - 6 , to repair skeletal muscle damage.

With adequate rest and nutrition, the IL - 6 response to exercise is attenuated as skeletal muscle adapts to training. However, sustained elevations in IL - 6 due to repeated bouts of unaccustomed activities or prolonged exercise with limited rest may result in untoward physiologic effects, such as accelerated muscle proteolysis and diminished nutrient absorption, and may impair normal adaptive responses to training.

Emerging evidence suggests that sufficient energy intake before exercise is an important factor in attenuating exercise-induced IL - 6 by maintaining muscle glycogen. We detail various nutritional interventions that may affect the IL - 6 response to exercise in healthy human adults and provide recommendations for future research exploring the role of IL - 6 in the adaptive response to exercise. High sCD30 also identified patients with worse survival in early MF.

Objective To investigate the role of bromodomain containing 3 Brd3 in LPS-triggered interleukin-6 IL - 6 production in macrophages and the underlying mechanism. Results LPS treatment significantly downregulated Brd3 expression in mouse peritoneal macrophages. Brd3 knockout significantly decreased the recruitment of acetylase CBP to IL 6 gene promoter, and the acetylation level of histone3 within IL 6 gene promoter was also repressed.

Migration through uncoated cell culture Over the course of the experiment, photographs of the cultures were. Background Hypercytokinemia is the main immunopathological mechanism contributing to a more severe clinical course in influenza A H1N1 virus infections. We propose that single-nucleotide polymorphisms SNPs in the promoter regions of pro-inflammatory genes are associated with the severity of influenza A H1N1 pdm09 virus infection.

Genotypes were correlated with 27 clinical severity variables. Additionally, severely ill patients were compared with moderately ill patients. Full Text Available Hypercytokinemia is the main immunopathological mechanism contributing to a more severe clinical course in influenza A H1N1 virus infections. Autocrine IL - 6 mediates pituitary tumor senescence. Cellular senescence is a stable proliferative arrest state.

Pituitary adenomas are frequent and mostly benign, but the mechanism for this remains unknown. IL - 6 is involved in pituitary tumor progression and is produced by the tumoral cells. In a cell autonomous fashion, IL - 6 participates in oncogene-induced senescence in transduced human melanocytes. Here we prove that autocrine IL - 6 participates in pituitary tumor senescence. Our results establish that IL - 6 contributes to maintain senescence by its autocrine action, providing a natural model of IL - 6 mediated benign adenoma senescence.

Knocking out IL - 6 by vaccination. Inappropriate expression of IL - 6 plays a role in various inflammatory conditions, degenerative diseases, and cancers. Several model systems have been developed that can specifically block IL - 6 -receptor interactions. Here we present a simple and highly effective approach based on vaccination with IL - 6 and mouse oocyte spindle.

Full Text Available Interleukin 6 IL - 6 is considered a major indicator of the acute-phase inflammatory response. Endometriosis and pelvic inflammation, diseases that manifest elevated levels of IL - 6 , are commonly associated with higher infertility. However, the mechanistic link between elevated levels of IL - 6 and poor oocyte quality is still unclear. In this work, we explored the direct role of this cytokine as a possible mediator for impaired oocyte spindle and chromosomal structure, which is a critical hurdle in the management of infertility.

The deterioration in microtubule and chromosomal alignment were evaluated utilizing both fluorescence and confocal microscopy, and were quantitated with a previously reported scoring system. Our results showed that IL - 6 caused a dose-dependent deterioration in microtubule and chromosomal alignment in the treated oocytes as compared to the untreated group. In conclusion, elevated levels of IL - 6 associated with endometriosis and pelvic inflammation may reduce the fertilizing capacity of human oocyte through a mechanism that involves impairment of the microtubule and chromosomal structure.

Chronic administration of recombinant IL - 6 upregulates lipogenic enzyme expression and aggravates high-fat-diet-induced steatosis in IL - 6 -deficient mice. Full Text Available Interleukin-6 IL - 6 has emerged as an important mediator of fatty acid metabolism with paradoxical effects in the liver.

Administration of IL - 6 has been reported to confer protection against steatosis, but plasma and tissue IL - 6 concentrations are elevated in chronic liver diseases, including fatty liver diseases associated with obesity and alcoholic ingestion.

Furthermore, r IL - 6 administration was associated with aggravated steatosis and elevated fat content in the liver. We conclude that, in the context of HFD-induced obesity, the administration of r IL - 6 might contribute to the aggravation of fatty liver disease through increasing lipogenesis.

Vaccination with IL - 6 analogues induces autoantibodies to IL - 6 and influences experimentally induced inflammation. We induced comparable levels of aAb- IL - 6 in different mouse strains by vaccination with immunogenic IL - 6 analogues. We observed that the induced aAb- IL - 6 protected against collagen-induced arthritis and experimental IL - 8 as antibody therapeutic target in inflammatory diseases.

IL - 8 is a chemokine that has been implicated in a number of inflammatory diseases involving neutrophil activation. HuMab 10F8 is a novel fully human mAb against IL - 8 , which binds a discontinuous epitope on IL - 8 overlapping the receptor binding site, and which effectively neutralizes IL - 8 -dependen IL - 8 as antibody therapeutic target in inflammatory diseases: Reduction of clinical activity in palmoplantar pustulosis. HuMab 10F8 is a novel fully human mAb against IL - 8 , which binds a discontinuous epitope on IL - 8 overlapping the receptor binding site, and which effectively neutralizes IL - 8 -dependent We investigated whether interference in the cytokine network by HuMab 10F8 might benefit patients suffering from palmoplantar pustulosis, a chronic inflammatory skin disease.

Treatment of patients with HuMab 10F8 was well tolerated and significantly reduced IL - 8 neutralization was monitored at the site of inflammation by assessing exudates of palmoplantar pustulosis lesions. HuMab 10F8 sequestered IL - 8 in situ, as observed by rapid dose Acute myotube protein synthesis regulation by IL - 6 -related cytokines. IL - 6 and leukemia inhibitory factor LIF , members of the IL - 6 family of cytokines, play recognized paradoxical roles in skeletal muscle mass regulation, being associated with both growth and atrophy.

Overload or muscle contractions can induce a transient increase in muscle IL - 6 and LIF expression, which has a regulatory role in muscle hypertrophy. However, the cellular mechanisms involved in this regulation have not been completely identified. The induction of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 mTORC1 -dependent myofiber protein synthesis is an established regulator of muscle hypertrophy, but the involvement of the IL - 6 family of cytokines in this process is poorly understood.

This induction of protein synthesis was blocked by both gp siRNA knockdown and Akt inhibition. Interaction of differentiated human adipocytes with macrophages leads to trogocytosis and selective IL - 6 secretion. Obesity leads to adipose tissue inflammation that is characterized by increased release of proinflammatory molecules and the recruitment of activated immune cells.

Although macrophages are present in the highest number among the immune cells in obese adipose tissue, not much is known about their direct interaction with adipocytes. We have introduced an ex vivo experimental system to characterize the cellular interactions and the profile of secreted cytokines in cocultures of macrophages and human adipocytes differentiated from either mesenchymal stem cells or a preadipocyte cell line. Development and characterization of mouse monoclonal antibody reactive with chicken IL - 8.

Since IL - 8 has functions to attract lymphocytes to sites of tissue damage, it plays a role in inflammatory responses and wound Correlations between IL 6 and the main clinical and biological parameters in rheumatoid arthritis. Full Text Available Introduction: Cytokines are a family of complex peptide with hormone-like activity. They are soluble proteins without enzymatic activity and serves as the main intracellular mediators.

Many cytokines achieves its effects by binding to special receptors membrane, and their adjustment is via soluble receptors. Cytokines are characterized by pleiotropism, overlapping and mutual adjustment. If TNF is involved in induction of apoptosis or programmed cell death, IL 6 is specifically associated with angiogenic factors activation and the occurrence of neovascularity to the synovium; favors articular cartilage degradation by increasing the release of MMP, decreasing PG, recruit osteoclasts, apoptosis of osteoblasts, release of degradative enzymes and the inflammatory mediators - iNOS, COX2 - TNF, IL 6 , IL 8.

The study was conducted on a group of 80 sick diagnosed with RA in various stages of evolution, under treatment with disease-modifying medication , type Methotrexate, Arava. Oxidative stress as well as apoptotic cell death was significantly decreased throughout the time period studied in the GFAP- IL 6 mice compared to controls. This could be linked to the altered inflammatory response as well The effect of CNS-targeted IL - 6 gene expression has been thoroughly investigated in the otherwise nonperturbed brain but not following brain injury.

These results indicate that although in the brain the chronic astrocyte-targeted expression of IL - 6 spontaneously induces an inflammatory response causing significant damage, during an acute Finally, aloin pretreatment also inhibited saliva-induced IL - 8 production. Therefore, aloin may be a good candidate for modulating oral inflammatory diseases.

Adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes are linked to perinatal production of inflammatory mediators, including interleukin 6 IL - 6. While a pivotal role for maternal elevation in IL - 6 has been established in determining neurobehavioral outcomes in the offspring and considered the primary target mediating the fetal inflammatory response, questions remain as to the specific actions of IL - 6 on the developing brain.

Immunohistochemical evaluation of astrocytes and microglia and mRNA levels for pro-inflammatory cytokines and host response genes indicated no evidence of an acute neuroinflammatory injury response. No changes were observed in motor activity, pre-pulse startle inhibition, or learning and memory in the Morris water maze or radial arm maze, as have been reported for models of more severe developmental neuroinflammation.

The non-hydroxy cerebroside fraction of cerebral lipids was increased. These results provide evidence for selective effects of IL - 6 signaling, particularly trans-signaling, in the developing brain in the absence of a general neuroinflammatory response. These data contribute to our further understanding of the multiple aspects of IL - 6 signaling in the developing brain.

Published by Elsevier Inc. ATM regulation of IL - 8 links oxidative stress to cancer cell migration and invasion. Here we report a cancer-promoting role for ATM. ATM depletion in metastatic cancer cells reduced cell migration and invasion. IL - 8 expression required ATM and was regulated by oxidative stress. Finally, ATM-depletion in human breast cancer cells reduced lung tumors in a mouse xenograft model and clinical data validated IL - 8 in lung metastasis. These findings provide insights into how ATM activation by oxidative stress regulates IL - 8 to sustain cell migration and invasion in cancer cells to promote metastatic potential.

Thus, in addition to well-established roles in tumor suppression, these findings identify a role for ATM in tumor progression. Objective: To evaluate the effect of different statuses of thyroid function hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism as well as euthyroid status on serum IL - 8 , TNF levels. Methods: Serum IL - 8 , TNF levels of 95 hyperthyroidism patients 41 males, 54 females , 53 hypothyroidism patients 23 males, 30 females , 45 euthyroid controls 24 males, 21 females were measured with RIA.

Results: 1. Serum IL - 8 levels in hyperthyroidism Graves' disease patients were significantly higher than those in controls. IL - 8 and TNF levels were also not correlated to age and thyroid hormone levels. Conclusion: Both IL - 8 and TNF took part in many auto-immure pathological processes including hyper-and hypo-thyroidism. The role of interleukin-8 IL - 8 and IL - 8 receptors in platinum response in high grade serous ovarian carcinoma.

Platinum based drugs are the cornerstone of chemotherapy for ovarian cancer, however the development of chemoresistance hinders its success. IL - 8 is involved in regulating several pro-survival pathways in cancer. We studied the expression of IL - 8 and IL - 8 receptors in platinum sensitive and resistant cell lines.

Knockdown of IL - 8 increased sensitivity to cisplatin in platinum sensitive and reversed platinum resistance in resistant cell lines, decreased the expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and decreased inhibitory phosphorylation of pro-apoptotic Bad. IL - 8 receptor antagonist treatment also enhanced platinum sensitivity. Nuclear localisation of IL - 8 RA was only detected in platinum resistant tumours. Inhibition of IL - 8 signalling can enhance response in platinum sensitive and resistant disease.

Nuclear IL - 8 RA may have potential as a biomarker of resistant disease. IL - 6 signaling blockade increases inflammation but does not affect muscle function in the mdx mouse. Full Text Available Abstract Background IL - 6 is a pleiotropic cytokine that modulates inflammatory responses and plays critical roles in muscle maintenance and remodeling. In the mouse model mdx of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, IL - 6 and muscle inflammation are elevated, which is believed to contribute to the chronic inflammation and failure of muscle regeneration in DMD.

The purpose of the current study was to examine the effect of blocking IL - 6 signaling on the muscle phenotype including muscle weakness and pathology in the mdx mouse. Methods A monoclonal antibody against the IL - 6 receptor IL - 6 r mAb that blocks local and systemic IL - 6 signaling was administered to mdx and BL mice for 5 weeks and muscle function, histology, and inflammation were examined. Results IL - 6 r mAb treatment increased mdx muscle inflammation including total inflammation score and ICAM-1 positive lumens in muscles.

There was no significant improvement in muscle strength nor muscle pathology due to IL - 6 r mAb treatment in mdx mice. Conclusions These results showed that instead of reducing inflammation, IL - 6 signaling blockade for 5 weeks caused an increase in muscle inflammation, with no significant change in indices related to muscle regeneration and muscle function. The results suggest a potential anti-inflammatory instead of the original hypothesized pro-inflammatory role of IL - 6 signaling in the mdx mice.

Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that tumor-associated macrophage-produced IL - 6 is an important mediator within the tumor microenvironment that promotes tumor growth. However, it is not fully understood whether anticytokine therapy could reverse chemosensitivity and enhance the suppressive effect of chemotherapy on tumor growth. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of IL - 6 inhibition therapy on the antitumor effect of carboplatin.

Blockade of IL - 6 with neutralizing antibody enhanced chemosensitivity of LoVo cells to carboplatin as evidenced by increased cell apoptosis. IL - 6 blockade and carboplatin synergistically reduced cyclin D1 expression and enhanced caspase-3 activity in LoVo cells. Our results suggest that inhibition of IL - 6 may enhance chemosensitivity of colon cancers with overactive STAT3 to platinum agents. Inactivation of the tumor suppressor PTEN is recognized as a major event in the pathogenesis of the brain tumor glioblastoma.

However, the mechanisms by which PTEN loss specifically impacts the malignant behavior of glioblastoma cells including their proliferation and propensity for invasiveness remain poorly understood. Importantly, IL 8 repression mediates STAT3-inhibition of glioblastoma cell proliferation, invasiveness, and spreading on myelin.

The C-allele was found to be associated with exercise-induced skeletal muscle damage. The study sample included track and field athletes and 80 swimmers. Track and field athletes w To test this hypothesis, we performed three experiments in which eight healthy males either rested CON , rode a bicycle for 3 h EX , or were infused with recombinant human IL - 6 rh IL - 6 for 3 h while they rested.

After 2. Hence, these data provide the first experimental evidence that physical activity mediates antiinflammatory activity and suggest that the mechanism include IL - 6 , which is produced Protein kinase CK2 modulates IL - 6 expression in inflammatory breast cancer. Drygin, Denis, E-mail: ddrygin cylenepharma. One of them Interleukin-6 IL - 6 is implicated in cancer cell proliferation and survival, and promotes angiogenesis, inflammation and metastasis. While IL - 6 has been shown to be upregulated by several oncogenes, the mechanism behind this phenomenon is not well characterized.

Moreover, we report that in a clinical trial, CX was able to dramatically reduce IL - 6 levels in plasma of an inflammatory breast cancer patient. Our data shed a new light on the regulation of IL - 6 expression and position CX and potentially other inhibitors of CK2, for the treatment of IL - 6 -driven cancers and possibly other diseases where IL - 6 is instrumental, including rheumatoid arthritis.

DON was devoid of agonist activity for human Toll-like receptors 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8 and 9. Taken together, these data suggest that 1 p38 activation was required for induction of IL - 8 and proinflammatory gene expression in the monocyte and 2 DON induced p38 activation in human monocytes via the ribotoxic stress response. Sphingosine 1-phosphate induces neutrophil chemoattractant IL - 8 : repression by steroids.

Full Text Available The bioactive sphingolipid sphingosine 1-phosphate S1P is found in increased amounts in the airways of asthmatics. S1P can regulate airway smooth muscle functions associated with asthmatic inflammation and remodeling, including cytokine secretion.

To date however, whether S1P induces secretion of an important chemokine responsible for neutrophilia in airway inflammation-- IL - 8 --was unexplored. The aim of this study was to investigate whether S1P induces IL - 8 gene expression and secretion to enhance neutrophil chemotaxis in vitro, as well as examine the molecular mechanisms responsible for repression by the corticosteroid dexamethasone. The corticosteroid dexamethasone significantly represses IL - 8 mRNA expression and protein secretion in a concentration- and time-dependent manner.

The functional relevance of this in vitro data was demonstrated by neutrophil chemotaxis assays where S1P-induced effects can be significantly attenuated by pretreatment with dexamethasone, pharmacological inhibition of p38 MAPK- or ERK-mediated pathways, or by knocking down MSK-1 with siRNA. Taken together, our study reveals the molecular pathways responsible for IL - 8 secretion from ASM cells in response to S1P and indicates ways in which the impact on IL - 8 -driven neutrophilia may be lessened.

We have investigated the importance of interleukin-6 IL - 6 in promoting tumor growth and metastasis. In human primary breast cancers, increased levels of IL - 6 were found at the tumor leading edge and positively correlated with advanced stage, suggesting a mechanistic link between tumor cell production of IL - 6 and invasion. Overexpression of IL - 6 in tumor cell lines promoted myeloid cell recruitment, angiogenesis, and induced metastases.

These clinically relevant interventions did not inhibit tumor cell proliferation in vitro but had profound effects in vivo on tumor progression, interfering broadly with tumor-supportive stromal functions, including angiogenesis, fibroblast infiltration, and myeloid suppressor cell recruitment in both the tumor and pre-metastatic niche. Full Text Available We have investigated the importance of interleukin-6 IL - 6 in promoting tumor growth and metastasis.

IL - 6 anti-inflammatory activity in pleural effusion post-coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Full Text Available Introduction: The local inflammatory reaction aspects of pleural behaviour post-coronary artery bypass graft surgery PCABG are not completely evident, demanding further study and observation. Aim: To evaluate the behaviour of some cytokines and the possible anti-inflammatory activity of IL - 6 a protein involved in cortisone synthesis on acute PCABG pleural fluid, since this cytokine is usually considered as an acute phase reaction protein associated to high concentrations of TNF-alpha and IL-1beta in immediate inflammatory reactions.

Results: While no increase was seen in either TNF-alpha or IL-2 in any of the three tests, IL-1beta increased after 24 until 48 hours, coinciding with the TGF-beta curve decline which fell from the beginning to reach the transudates levels. IL - 8 reminded higher from the beginning and through the two subsequent tests while VEGF levels were elevated from the first test and continued high for the following 24 and 48 hours.

IL - 6 had high concentrations from the beginning, suggesting an anti-inflammatory activity at the three times of testing. This performance of IL - 6 breaks with the traditional idea of it being a pro-inflammatory acute phase reaction cytokine, at least in this type of pleural effusion. This seems to be the first study involving the favourable behaviour of IL - 6 in the inflammatory reaction of pleura in the acute phase of PCABG surgery. Grain dust induces IL - 8 production from bronchial epithelial cells: the effect of dexamethasone on IL - 8 production.

Recent publications have suggested an active participation of neutrophils to induce bronchoconstriction after inhalation of grain dust GD. To further understand the role of neutrophils in the pathogenesis of GD-induced asthma, this investigation was designed to determine whether human bronchial epithelial cells could produce IL - 8 production and to observe the effect of dexamethasone on IL - 8 production.

We cultured Beas-2B, a bronchial epithelial cell line. The level of released IL - 8 in the supernatant was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. There was significant production of IL - 8 from bronchial epithelial cells with additions of GD in a dose-dependent manner P IL - 8 production from bronchial epithelial cells in a dose-dependent manner.

These results suggest that IL - 8 production from bronchial epithelial cells may contribute to neutrophil recruitment occurring in GD-induced airway inflammation. The downregulation of IL - 8 production by dexamethasone from bronchial epithelial cells may contribute to the efficacy of this compound in. Objective: To study the changes of CEA and IL - 6 contents in blood and gastric juice in patients with gastric cancer and gastritis.

Results: Gastric juice CEA and IL - 6 contents in patients with gastric carcinoma were significantly higher than those in the controls p IL - 6 contents in patients with gastritis and controls were not much different. Conclusion: Gastric juice CEA and IL - 6 assay is of diagnostic significance in patients with gastric malignant tumor. Shear stress and interleukin-8 IL - 8 on the proliferation Endothelial progenitor cells EPCs derived from bone marrow, are also found Interleukin IL - 6 engages similar signaling mechanisms to leptin.

Here, we find that central application of IL - 6 in mice suppresses feeding and improves glucose tolerance. In contrast to leptin, whose action is attenuated in obesity, the ability of IL - 6 to suppress feeding is enhanced in obese mice. IL - 6 suppresses feeding in the absence of neuronal IL - 6 -receptor IL - 6 R expression in hypothalamic or all forebrain neurons of mice. Conversely, obese mice exhibit increased soluble IL - 6 R levels in the cerebrospinal fluid.

Furthermore, gp expression is enhanced in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus PVH of obese mice, and deletion of gp in the PVH attenuates the beneficial central IL - 6 effects on metabolism. Collectively, these experiments indicate that IL - 6 trans-signaling is enhanced in the CNS of obese mice, allowing IL - 6 to exert its beneficial metabolic effects even under conditions of leptin resistance.

APE1 is central in controlling the oxidative stress-based inflammatory processes through modulation of cytokines expression and its overexpression is responsible for the onset of chemoresistance in different tumors including hepatic cancer. We examined the functional role of APE1 overexpression during hepatic cell damage related to fatty acid accumulation and the role of the redox function of APE1 in the inflammatory process.

HepG2 cells were stably transfected with functional and non-functional APE1 encoding plasmids and the protective effect of APE1 overexpression toward genotoxic compounds or FAs accumulation, was tested. APE1 over-expression did not prevent cytotoxicity induced by lipid accumulation. APE1 overexpression observed in hepatic cancer cells may reflect an adaptive response to cell damage and may be responsible for further cell resistance to chemotherapy and for the onset of inflammatory response.

Short-term exposure to oleandrin enhances responses to IL - 8 by increasing cell surface IL - 8 receptors. IL - 8 and its receptors are a chemokine system essential to such migration. Up-regulation of these receptors would be a viable strategy to treat dysfunctional host defence.

Here, we studied the effects of the plant glycoside oleandrin on responses to IL - 8 in a human monocytic cell line. Pulse exposure increased numbers of cell surface IL - 8 receptors. Pulse exposure to oleandrin could provide a viable therapy for those conditions where leukocyte migration is defective. The potent immunomodulatory cytokine IL - 6 is consistently up-regulated in human lungs with emphysema and in mouse emphysema models; however, the mechanisms by which IL - 6 promotes emphysema remain obscure.

IL - 6 signals using two distinct modes: classical signaling via its membrane-bound IL - 6 receptor IL - 6 R , and trans-signaling via a naturally occurring soluble IL - 6 R. Emphysema in mice was quantified by various methods including in vivo lung function and stereology, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay was used to assess alveolar cell apoptosis.

In mouse and human lung tissues, the expression level and location of IL - 6 signaling-related genes and proteins were measured, and the levels of IL - 6 and related proteins in sera from emphysematous mice and patients were also assessed. Lung tissues from patients with emphysema, and from spontaneous and cigarette smoke-induced emphysema mouse models, were characterized by excessive production of soluble IL - 6 R.

Genetic blockade of IL - 6 trans-signaling in emphysema mouse models and therapy with the IL - 6 trans-signaling antagonist sgpFc ameliorated emphysema by suppressing augmented alveolar type II cell apoptosis. Furthermore, IL - 6 trans-signaling-driven emphysematous changes in the lung correlated with mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 hyperactivation, and treatment of emphysema mouse models with the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 inhibitor rapamycin attenuated emphysematous changes.

Collectively, our data reveal that specific targeting of IL - 6 trans-signaling may represent a novel treatment strategy for emphysema. Jankord, Ryan; Turk, James R. Inflammation contributes to disease development, and the neuro-immuno-endocrine interface is a potential site of action for inflammatory products like IL - 6 to affect health. Although plasma IL - 6 can stimulate the activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical HPA axis, the precise role, if any, for IL - 6 in the HPA response to non-immunological stressors is unclear.

The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that IL - 6 in the stalk median eminence SME can be directly involved in stimulating ACTH secretion in response to acute stress in female swine. This study was undertaken as a result of finding IL - 6 localized to the external zone of the stalk median eminence SME next to the hypophyseal portal vessels. Furthermore, we show that females concomitantly display greater SME content of IL - 6 and greater HPA responsiveness to stress, thereby suggesting that IL - 6 release from the SME is an integral factor contributing to enhanced stress responsiveness in females.

Our results provide evidence for a direct link between IL - 6 and ACTH release and reveal a sex difference in this relationship. Prostate cancer is the most diagnosed cancer in men and multiple risk factors and genetic alterations have been described. Prostate tumors produce various soluble factors, including the pleiotropic cytokine IL - 6 , regulating cellular processes such as proliferation and metastatic segregation. Here, we used prostatectomy samples in a tissue microarray format and analyzed the co-expression and the clinicopathologic data of ERG and IL - 6 using immunohistochemical double staining and correlated the read-out with clinicopathologic data.

By dissecting the underlying mechanism in prostate tumor cell lines we show the ERG-mediated up-regulation of the prostanoid receptors EP2 and EP3. Economic output 2. Household consumption. Private investment. Dwelling investment. New and used. Alterations and additions. Business investment. Non-dwelling construction.

Machinery and equipment. Private final demand. Public final demand. State final demand. Net overseas exports 3. Overseas exports. Gross state product. Other economic measures. While some strengthening in government spending on key services and infrastructure will help state final demand grow moderately in , net exports are forecast to remain the major contributor to economic growth.

Net exports will contribute around 2 percentage points to GSP growth, as LNG exports drive strong growth in total exports and falling business investment results in lower imports. Beyond , GSP growth is expected to be more balanced across its major components see Chart 2. Labour market outcomes in have been more solid than previously anticipated, although some softening in employment growth is expected in Employment growth is forecast to improve modestly from , reflecting a gradual pick-up in domestic demand.

Source: Queensland Treasury. Growth in household consumption has remained below its historical average since the GFC. The impacts of weak household income growth see Chart 2. Resource-related employment has fallen and aggregate employment growth has shifted from higher wage mining and construction sectors towards the services sector which generally have lower average earnings.

These factors have been only partially offset by the wealth effect of rising house prices over the past three years and lower interest rates, which have increased the disposable incomes of debt holders. Further, savings rates remain elevated as households continue to rebuild their balance sheets in the aftermath of the GFC, imposing an additional constraint on consumption spending. Continued strength in the dwelling construction sector, and improving labour market conditions from , are expected to drive a gradual pick-up in household consumption growth over the forecast period.

However, the effect of slower migration on population growth is expected to keep household consumption growth below its historical average. Supported by sustained low mortgage rates and investor interest, dwelling investment in Queensland continues to grow robustly, following growth of 8. This growth phase has been predominantly driven by construction of medium-to-high density housing units, townhouses and apartments.

Underpinned by strong investor demand, particularly in Inner City Brisbane, the Gold Coast and Brisbane South, the number of approvals for medium-to-high density dwellings remains elevated, while the improvement in approvals for houses has been modest.

The substantial amount of construction work still in the pipeline underpins the strong forecast growth in dwelling investment in and a further solid result in see Chart 2. Looking further ahead, the high number of attached dwellings being completed in South East Queensland, as well as tighter lending practices, may restrain growth in prices and rents in this segment of the market and limit further investment beyond the current pipeline.

Further, slower population growth and subdued labour market conditions are likely to result in more moderate growth in dwelling investment over the medium-term. Business investment continues to adjust from the record levels experienced at the peak of LNG construction in The completion of the two remaining LNG projects by the end of , along with modest investment outside the resources sector, will result in a fall in business investment through to see Chart 2.

Low prices and moderating demand in the global commodities market are discouraging significant new capital expenditure in the resources sector, with market conditions expected to remain subdued over the next few years. Following strong growth in , non-residential building construction shops, offices, factories etc. With domestic economic activity expected to remain subdued in the short-term, this will see the spare capacity of several industries particularly commercial office and industrial space remain relatively high, reducing the incentive for investment.

In contrast, investment in the accommodation and entertainment industries has been increasing and is expected to remain elevated over the next few years, supported by strong growth in. The agricultural sector may also experience investment growth in the medium-term, assuming a return to normal seasonal conditions. However, the scale of the decline in engineering construction will outweigh any improvement in non-residential building construction activity through to Consistent with weaker construction activity and an increased focus on lowering costs, particularly within the resources sector, expenditure on machinery and equipment is also expected to fall substantially in , before stabilising in As a result, overall business investment is forecast to continue to decline in both and As the impact of the LNG investment wind-down passes and non-resources investment recovers in line with improving household sector activity, business investment is expected to return to a more sustainable growth path from onwards.

Public final demand covers spending across Commonwealth, state and local governments on consumption and investment. Growth in this component is forecast to remain moderate as governments at all levels remain committed to responsible and measured financial management, whilst continuing to invest in key services and infrastructure. Overseas exports and imports.

The trade sector is expected to drive overall economic growth in Queensland in Coal export volumes are estimated to be largely unchanged in the year, as demand from China declines due to slower industrial production growth. Base metals export volumes are expected to decline in both and , reflecting the anticipated closure of a number of significant projects. Beef export volumes are likely to decline in the year due to lower herd numbers, while some crop exports are expected to benefit from expanding overseas markets.

Following several years of strong growth, total coal export volumes are expected to be broadly unchanged in , having increased by just 0. Lower prices received for these exports are expected to result in a decline in the nominal value of coal exports in Coal export volumes are forecast to grow moderately from onwards, supported by supply growth from new and existing mines see Chart 2. Further, weak global demand and increased world supply is expected to limit coal price growth.

The projections of major coal parameters for mining royalties are shown in Appendix C. Metal exports are forecast to fall in both and , reflecting announced production cuts, closures of depleted mines such as the Century Zinc and Black Star Open Cut mines and the cessation of operations at the Yabulu Nickel refinery. Deterioration in ore grades should see copper and lead production gradually decline later in the forecast period.

The current low-price environment has also resulted in limited investment in new base metals capacity. Beef producers in Queensland responded to elevated prices and prevailing drought conditions by selling record numbers of cattle. Consequently, the size of the Queensland cattle herd has fallen to its lowest level since , and beef export volumes have begun to decline in Beef production and exports are expected to continue to fall in and , as farmers seek to rebuild herd numbers.

The harvest outcome for the season suggests sugar exports will continue to grow moderately in Cotton export volumes are forecast to decline in , following a switch from cotton to less water intensive crops, such as sorghum, in response to drought. Cotton production and exports are expected to recover from , as weather conditions improve.

Other crop exports have grown strongly in , driven by chickpea exports, as producers took advantage of a temporary production shortfall in India. Sorghum exports have experienced significant growth so far in , reflecting increased demand from China. Overseas tourism exports are forecast to experience substantial growth in In addition, the Gold Coast Commonwealth Games, to be held in April , is expected to provide a boost to tourism exports in Overseas education exports are also forecast to grow strongly in With the high level of LNG-related imports continuing to unwind and a lack of significant new capital expenditure outside of LNG, imports of goods are expected to decline in both and , contributing to economic growth in these years.

From onwards, overall business investment is expected to gradually improve and, together with a forecast strengthening in household spending, overseas imports are expected to increase. Labour market. Employment growth has been concentrated in South East Queensland, with conditions remaining weak in many regional areas, particularly those with significant mining or resource-related construction workforces.

As with economic growth more generally, developments in the resources sector are influencing Queensland labour market conditions. Several major mining companies announced reductions in their workforce and cut unprofitable production in Prospects for new investment in the current low-price environment are limited, and employment in the resources sector, including in exploration, is likely to fall further in the short-term.

Industries servicing the resources sector, for example metal manufacturing, are also impacted. With LNG projects nearing completion, construction employment is declining. An increase in residential building activity which is somewhat more labour intensive has only partially offset this trend in construction employment.

Labour demand in regional Queensland is expected to remain soft in the near-term, leading to some of those formerly employed in the mining or engineering construction industries needing to retrain or relocate to find work elsewhere. The Government has a role to play in helping to facilitate this transition. In coming to office in early , the Palaszczuk Government identified improving employment opportunities for all Queenslanders as its core policy objective to lead Queensland to a prosperous future for all.

To ensure a cohesive, co-ordinated approach across government, the Government established a specific Working Queensland Cabinet Committee of key ministers to oversee implementation of the initiatives. A dedicated Employment Policy Unit was also established within Queensland Treasury to help drive the ongoing development and implementation of additional employment policies and programs across Government.

Jobs Now, Jobs for the Future. To help inform policy development, the Government has held an extensive series of ministerial-led employment forums across the State to identify local issues, broader regional issues and targeting solutions for specific disadvantaged groups. Forum participants included business owners, community leaders and industry leaders, as well as representatives of disadvantaged cohorts, not-for-profit organisations and State, local and federal governments.

Accelerated Works Program. The Budget builds on initiatives from the Budget to provide greater employment opportunities, such as the Back to Work Regional Employment Package. Back to Work is a two year package to help get unemployed Queenslanders back to work, create jobs in the regions and boost local economies, by supporting up to 8, jobs across regional Queensland. Back to Work will deliver assistance directly to employers, to help them build the confidence to take on staff, provide opportunities for jobseekers and provide an economic boost to regions facing challenging times.

Back to Work includes:. The moderation in income growth is, in turn, constraining consumer spending. The long anticipated improvement in business investment is now not expected to occur until This, combined with subdued household consumption growth and moderation in health and education employment growth, is expected to result in some softening of employment growth in see Chart 2.

Employment growth is forecast to improve modestly in , reflecting a gradual pick-up in domestic demand, particularly household consumption. Notwithstanding these trends, the unemployment rate is now expected to be lower across the forecast period than at the time of MYFER.

As employment growth begins to outpace growth in the working-age population, the unemployment rate is expected to improve from Prices and wages. Brisbane consumer price inflation is expected to continue to moderate in , primarily reflecting the significant decline in the price of automotive fuel as global oil prices have fallen. Additionally, measures introduced by the Australian Energy Regulator have resulted in more modest increases in utility prices than those in recent years.

Some upward pressure to Brisbane consumer price inflation has been provided by increased prices for tobacco due to excise rates increasing A modest acceleration in Brisbane consumer price inflation is forecast for , as the impact of lower oil prices recedes and higher prices for imported goods continues to filter through to the retail market. Despite low nominal wage growth by historical standards, slower consumer price inflation has maintained wage growth in real terms.

Ongoing spare capacity in the labour market is expected to minimise upward pressure on real wage growth in As labour demand improves and the unemployment rate falls, wage growth is expected to pick-up. Over the longer-term it is expected there will be some moderate recovery in population growth. These trends are, however, even more marked in Western Australia and the Northern Territory, which are more heavily dependent on the resources sector and have experienced a much sharper fall in population growth rates see Chart 2.

Looking ahead, a factor that may impact population growth, as it did in the early s, is the relative difference in house prices between Brisbane and Sydney and, to a lesser extent, Melbourne. While these differentials have widened recently, this is being offset by the soft Queensland labour market. Slower long-term population growth, both nationally and for Queensland, will have an impact on the rate of economic growth.

Importantly, a lower population growth rate will enable per capita living standards to be improved despite a lower headline rate of economic growth. The Queensland Government is focussed on implementing policies to encourage population growth and promote Queensland as a great State to live and work.

A key risk for the international economic outlook is a greater than expected intensification of global deflationary trends. Despite accommodative monetary policy in most major economies, growth remains sluggish and has continued to disappoint on the downside. There is also a risk that the anticipated recovery in the United States could stall.

Annual economic growth has been slowing, and manufacturing orders have been falling, since mid There is uncertainty surrounding the path of official interest rates over the next two years, with the expected number of interest rate rises wound back from four to two since the initial increase in December In China, there is a risk that the transition from investment-led to consumption-led growth may not proceed smoothly. If the renewed volatility in financial markets seen at the start of were to re-emerge, this could impair confidence and growth.

Contributing to these risks is the increased political uncertainty across many parts of the world. Domestically, the pace and timing of a pick-up in non-resources business investment continues to be a key source of uncertainty for the outlook, as investment declines and the economy transitions into broader-based growth.

A further domestic risk to the outlook for the Queensland economy is a larger than anticipated moderation in dwelling investment growth. With dwelling approval numbers remaining elevated, particularly in inner Brisbane, their successful translation into construction activity will be a critical factor. This will support delivery of the transformational infrastructure that Queenslanders need today to prepare for the challenges of tomorrow.

In its first Budget, the Palaszczuk Government delivered on a number of key policy positions taken to the January Election. Further detail on these measures is provided in Box 3. The Review of State Finances, released concurrently with the Budget, confirmed the importance of delivering substantial net operating surpluses to ensure that the General Government Sector capital program can be funded primarily from recurrent revenues, rather than borrowings.

The Review also confirmed the importance of managing General Government Sector debt through targeting an ongoing reduction in the ratio of debt to revenue. The Government remains committed to these principles which are:. In the Budget the Government is introducing an additional fiscal principle in relation to the management of growth in the public service.

The new principle, which follows the delivery of key commitments to revitalise frontline services, is as follows:. Further discussion of the size of the Queensland public sector is in Chapter 5. The fiscal environment facing the State remains challenging. This has contributed to a decline in the outlook for coal prices. The Queensland Government remains committed to taking action to reduce the level of General Government Sector debt and its associated interest expenses.

The Government continues to explore opportunities to reduce General Government Sector debt. Surplus repatriation from the defined benefit superannuation scheme. Half of the funds repatriated will be used to fund additional priority infrastructure and the balance to reduce General Government Sector debt.

The payment of defined benefit scheme entitlements remains guaranteed by legislation. There will be no change in entitlements for defined benefit scheme members. All defined benefit scheme member entitlements will continue to be paid as they fall due. Although the defined benefit scheme was closed to new members in , it will continue until the retirement of the last of the current members.

Queensland is still the only Australian jurisdiction to fully fund its defined benefit superannuation liabilities. Government-owned corporations and cash management arrangements. The cash balances of Government departments are aggregated daily in a set-off bank facility. Any surplus cash is invested until needed or used to reduce General Government Sector debt.

Currently, significant cash balances are maintained in State owned entities, at the same time that the Government has a net borrowing requirement. In order to make more effective use of available resources, government-owned corporations will be required to make any surplus cash available to the General Government Sector through a modified set-off banking arrangement. Additionally, where Government makes payments to government-owned corporations, these will be paid in the future according to a detailed cash flow forecast rather than a periodic payment schedule.

These revised cash management arrangements will ensure that government-owned corporations are not financially or commercially disadvantaged, but allow any surplus cash to be made available to the General Government Sector and contribute to General Government Sector debt reduction. This arrangement will be implemented in such a way that government-owned corporations will still be able to meet their required operational cash flows as they fall due and encourage a more disciplined and commercial focus.

As announced in the MYFER, the Government is implementing the regearing strategy for a number of government-owned corporations. At the same time, the Government continuously assesses the capital structure and gearing levels of all government-owned corporations, making adjustments in accordance with forecast information.

The key fiscal aggregates of the General Government Sector for the Budget are outlined in Table 3. This will ensure that the General Government Sector capital program is primarily funded from recurrent revenues, rather than borrowings. As identified in Table 3. While there is continuing weakness in revenue outlooks, the lower net operating surplus in relative to previous forecasts is primarily driven by timing in Commonwealth funding for disaster recovery expenditure.

As shown in Chart 3. This is primarily a result of reduced royalty revenues. This is primarily because of reductions in the rate of growth in payroll tax, offset, to some extent, by transfer duty. Downward revisions to operating surpluses in and compared to the Budget primarily reflect substantial revisions to royalty revenue and to a lesser extent taxation and new policy measures. These are partly offset by reprioritisation measures, increases to GST revenue and changed timing for the receipt of Commonwealth funding in relation to disaster expenditure.

Table 3. Taxation revisions 2. Royalty revisions. GST revisions. Natural disaster revisions 3,4. Change in revenue. Change in expenses. Net change. Measures 5. Australian Government funding revisions 7. Other parameter adjustments 8. Published net operating balance. Underlying net operating balance.

Disaster related capital 2. A change to the expected timing of Australian Government reimbursements for previous disasters has deferred revenue from into and From onwards the impact of disasters and the timing of NDRRA reimbursements have a minimal impact on the expected net operating position.

General Government Sector. The significant cash surplus, compared to the expected cash deficit primarily reflects slightly higher net operating receipts, re-profiled expenditure, and reduced cash requirements for investments in non-financial assets. Capital purchases. The reclassified expenditures, while reducing the reported capital program, will continue to be applied to the delivery of infrastructure outcomes.

This primarily relates to the deferral of Commonwealth-funded transport infrastructure, consistent with the Commonwealth Budget, and some reclassification of transport expenditure from capital to operating expenses. The significant reduction since the Budget is primarily due to measures under the Debt Action Plan. Net borrowing requirements are modest across the remainder of the forward estimates.

This is largely a result of the repatriation of funds from the previous over-contribution to the Defined Benefit Superannuation scheme effectively funding increased capital investment and the reduction in revenue. The benefits of the enhanced Debt Action Plan are apparent particularly in terms of the debt to revenue ratio, as demonstrated in Table 3. Gross borrowings. Chart 3. The chart demonstrates that General Government Sector borrowings are expected to be substantially lower in each year of the forward estimates compared to both prior Budgets, particularly the Budget.

Change between Budget and Budget. Public Non-financial Corporations Sector. Non-financial Public Sector. Change between Budget and This decrease is largely due to deferred capital expenditure particularly in the areas of transport and health and by government-owned corporations. Following consideration of the Review of State Finances, prepared by Queensland Treasury, the Government refined the principles that relate to General Government Sector debt and the size of the net operating surplus.

These refinements were intended to ensure the fiscal principles present a consistent strategy to underpin the development of the State Budget and financial decision-making. The fiscal principles provide the framework for the Budget. Fiscal principles. The Government has consistently identified that its primary fiscal focus is on managing the debt of the General Government Sector, which must be serviced from General Government Sector revenues such as taxes either state or federal , charges and royalties.

In contrast, the debt of government-owned corporations is serviced from the operating cash flows of these businesses. Despite the deterioration in key revenue items, the improvement in the General Government Sector debt to revenue ratio delivered through the Budget has been maintained, and slightly improved in the Budget. Further, the Government recognises that the size of the operating surplus must be large enough that recurrent revenues, rather than borrowings, are the primary funding source for capital investment in the General Government Sector.

The most direct way of identifying the sources of funding of capital investment is in the General Government Sector Cash Flow Statement refer to Table 9. Across the period to , this proportion remains relatively constant as shown in Chart 3. This is primarily due to early receipt of cash related to dividends recognised as operating revenue in , as well as reclassifications of capital expenditure to operating expenses or finance leases since the MYFER. Purchases of non-financial assets are expected to increase somewhat across the forward estimates, but not return to the extraordinarily high levels of to Government has a clear role in providing an economic environment that supports business and jobs growth and does not place undue strain on households.

In addition to measures of interstate tax competitiveness as discussed in Chapter 4 , there are a range of other own-source revenues, such as user charges and royalties, which are relevant for businesses and households. General Government Sector own-source revenue is forecast to be 7.

Consistent with the long-standing practice of successive governments, the Queensland Government is committed to ensuring that the State sets aside assets to meet long-term liabilities such as superannuation and WorkCover, in accordance with actuarial advice.

As set out in the enhanced Debt Action Plan see Box 3. New Principle. The Government has a clear role in providing high quality and appropriate frontline services that keep pace with growth in the population while maintaining fiscally responsible and affordable levels of expenditure. Accordingly, the Government has decided to adopt a new fiscal principle. The Government will work towards a sustainable public service by ensuring that growth in FTEs for in-scope agencies, on average over the forward estimates, does not exceed population growth.

In-scope agencies are the agencies and staff identified in Table 5. Population growth will be measured as the growth in estimated resident population. In addition, a new fiscal principle in relation to the size of the public service has been introduced. Target net operating surpluses that ensure any new capital investment in the General Government Sector is funded primarily through recurrent revenues rather than borrowing.

The capital program will be managed to ensure a consistent flow of works to support jobs and the economy and reduce the risk of backlogs emerging measured as PNFA. Maintain competitive taxation - own-source revenue to remain at or below 8. Average across the forward estimates:.

Target full funding of long-term liabilities such as superannuation and WorkCover in accordance with actuarial advice. As at last actuarial review as at June , the scheme was fully funded. The State Actuary has advised that repatriation can be undertaken while maintaining consistency with APRA funding standards for corporate defined benefit schemes.

The State Actuary undertakes a comprehensive review of the scheme at least every three years. Growth in FTEs. Maintain a sustainable public service by ensuring that overall growth in full-time equivalent employees, on average over the forward estimates, does not exceed population growth. FTE growth. Population growth. This chapter provides an overview of General Government Sector revenue for the estimated actual outcome, forecasts for the Budget year and projections for to Taxation revenue.

Sales of goods and services. Interest income. Grants revenue. Current grants. Capital grants. Dividend and income tax equivalent income. Income tax equivalent income. Other revenue. Royalties and land rents. Total revenue. Significant variations from the Budget estimates include:. Major sources of General Government Sector revenue in are grants revenue Chart 4. The main drivers of revenue growth in are disaster recovery funding and GST revenue from the Australian Government.

From , State taxes contribute a larger proportion of growth. Total revenue growth, which is mainly driven by these three sources, is estimated to be 3. This is far lower than the 7. Growth in GST was supported by strong growth in household consumption and dwelling investment activity, which were sustained by high levels of consumer confidence and partly funded by increases in household borrowings.

Annual growth in transfer duty averaged This was a key contributor to total taxation average annual growth of Looking forward, the expected average annual transfer duty growth of 5. While low interest rates are expected to support recovery in the property market, this is expected to occur at a gradual pace, particularly in the non-residential sector.

Although transfer duty is expected to decrease slightly in , this reflects several extraordinary large business transactions occurring in Residential property transfers have been strong in , with increases in both homebuyer and investor activity. Payroll tax has a relatively stable base and more direct relationship to the underlying economic conditions compared with the volatility associated with transfer duty.

Payroll tax is expected to grow by 5. In contrast to the other key revenues, royalty revenues reached a peak in , as coal contracts had been priced at record levels prior to the onset of the GFC see Chart 4. Royalty revenue then fell significantly in , as a result of falling coal contract prices, and has not returned to the levels of Since the Budget, significant downwards revisions have been made to royalties across the period to , mainly due to lower commodity prices. This is discussed further in Box 4.

This is the result of both lower than expected coal export volumes and weaker than anticipated coal and oil prices, partially offset by a lower exchange rate. After falling by 2. The lower royalty revenue in is due to royalty revenue in being supported by compliance reassessments. Although a gradual recovery in coal prices is expected from , coking coal prices are forecast to be significantly lower across the forward estimates than they were in the Budget see Chart 4.

Across the forward estimates, a modest recovery in commodity prices, combined with growth in export volumes especially from LNG is expected to see royalty revenue improve, though royalties will still be far below the level anticipated at the time of the and Budgets. Increases in the exchange rate since MYFER have had a small negative impact on royalties in and , with the exchange rate assumed to remain flat across the forward estimates.

Since MYFER, coal price forecasts have declined significantly across all years of the forward estimates. As shown in Chart 4. Oil prices are related to LNG prices and therefore factor strongly into royalty forecasts. Since the Budget, estimates of oil prices across the forward estimates have fallen significantly. While the price is expected to recover over the forward estimates period as the supply of oil starts to rebalance with demand, the recovery is expected to occur over a longer period than anticipated in the Budget see Chart 4.

The assumptions for the oil price in the short-run are similar to Consensus Economics forecasts in , with some recognition of recent strength in oil futures prices. From , oil price assumptions are below Consensus Economics forecasts, consistent with a conservative approach.

Further details of the assumptions underlying the royalty estimates, and the impact of changes in the assumptions are contained in Appendix C. Since the Budget, changes to global conditions have meant that royalty revenue has been revised down in each subsequent budget update, leaving revenues at a much lower level than had more favourable conditions persisted. Coal prices were again revised down in the MYFER due to downgrades to forecasts of industrial production growth of major importers and a reduction in thermal coal usage.

Sources: Queensland State Budgets to Over the same period, significant revisions have been made to coking coal prices. The volatility of mineral prices and their impact on royalty revenues is a challenge.

Estimates of LNG export prices, which are linked to oil prices, have also been revised down significantly over the last two budgets. While CSG volumes are still anticipated to grow across the forward estimates, reductions in estimated prices have resulted in downwards revisions in CSG royalties since the Budget.

CSG royalties are included in petroleum royalties. The Government affirms its commitment to Queenslanders to no new taxes, fees or charges. This measure will have no direct impact on Queensland residents, and is designed to ensure that foreign purchasers of residential land, who benefit from Government services and infrastructure, make a contribution to their delivery. The Rural Assistance Package is to be delivered across several departments and is designed to assist rural producers across the State affected by debt and drought.

The existing concession applies to transfers and indirect acquisitions through family partnerships, family trusts and family unit trusts of land primarily used to carry on a business of primary production, including adjacent residential land as well as personal property used to conduct the business on the land, to the extent the transfer is by way of gift.

The concession will be extended by removing the requirement that the transfer be by way of gift. This will focus on compliance relating to certain key taxes. Total revenue from taxation is expected to grow by 3. The main components of taxation revenue are shown in Table 4.

Payroll tax. Vehicle registration. Insurance 2. Other duties 3. Total duties. Gambling taxes and levies. Gaming machine tax. Health Services Levy. Lotteries taxes. Wagering taxes. Casino taxes and levies. Keno tax. Total gambling taxes and levies. Other taxes. Land tax. Motor vehicle registration.

Emergency Management Levy 4. Guarantee fees 5. Other taxes 6. Total taxation revenue. Payroll tax At present, payroll tax is affected by changes in the composition of the payroll tax base, with reductions in collections from the mining and construction industries only partially offset by growth in other industries, such as retail trade.

In contrast, revenue growth from transfer duty representing Land tax represents 8. While also subject to the volatility of price movements in the property market, this impact is moderated by a relatively stable base and the effect of three year averaging of land values for assessments. Gambling taxes and levies represent 9.

Motor vehicle registration represents Other duties, including registration duty and insurance duty represent Payroll tax is chargeable at a rate of 4. The overall payroll tax rate of 4. The decline in mining investment has seen a reduction in payroll tax receipts in and this is expected to continue to weigh on growth in Payroll tax collections have declined from the mining and construction industries, which have a higher concentration of larger organisations.

In an environment of low commodity prices, mining operators have reduced their workforce and continue to target efficiency gains to maintain profitability. This is also having an impact on employment in industries servicing the resources sector, such as professional services and equipment hiring. Modest growth in other industries, such as retail trade, has partially offset the decline in payroll tax collections from mining and construction.

The average annual payroll tax growth is forecast to be 5. Duties are levied on a range of financial and property transactions. The major duties include transfer, vehicle registration and insurance duties. Transfer duty. Transfer duty is charged at various rates on the transfer of real and business property. The Queensland Government offers extensive concessions for the transfer of land where the property is purchased as a home.

Revenue from transfer duty is expected to be 5. The decrease was mainly a result of strong transfer duty revenue in , which was supported by a number of large commercial transactions. Underlying growth is estimated to be In , underlying growth is expected to be 5. Over the four years to , transfer duty is estimated to grow by 5.

This rate of growth is based on an expectation of moderate growth in residential and non-residential transfer duty, supported by a pipeline of construction works. Vehicle registration duty. Revenue from vehicle registration duty is expected to grow by 3. Insurance duty. Insurance duty is charged on contracts of general insurance for example, insurance for house and contents, vehicle, professional indemnity , life insurance, compulsory third party insurance and accident insurance.

Revenue from insurance duty is expected to grow by 5. QSuper insurance was previously provided on a self-insurance basis and was therefore not subject to duty. Duty on insurance provided by QInsure has resulted in modest increases to estimates of insurance duty and other duties in A range of gambling activities are subject to State taxes and levies.

Total gambling tax and levy collections are estimated to grow by 4. The Government has been undertaking targeted consultation on planned changes to electronic gaming machine tax arrangements for community-based clubs that would mean revenue is recognised on a per-premises rather than a per-licence basis.

The proposal is expected to make it easier for clubs to establish new venues and revitalise existing ones, thereby generating jobs and economic opportunities for their local communities. There will be no increase in the number of gaming machines in Queensland as a result of the change. The principal place of residence is deducted from this value.

Land tax is estimated to grow by 7. Some moderation in property value growth is expected in the next few years, which is reflected by the annual growth of 6. Motor vehicle registration fees are expected to grow by 2. Growth in motor vehicle registration fees are somewhat lower in than the four year average, primarily due to heavy vehicle fee revenue remaining at levels in This reflects the implementation pathway to new heavy vehicle charges agreed by the Transport and Infrastructure Council in November Heavy vehicle charges aim to recover costs relating to the impact of operating heavy vehicles on roads.

The Emergency Management Levy revenue, which is used to partly offset the costs of emergency management in Queensland, is expected to grow by 5. Guarantee fees are revenues collected by Queensland Treasury Corporation QTC on behalf of the State and comprise competitive neutrality fees and credit margin fees.

These fees promote competitive neutrality between public sector agencies and those in the private sector, and ensure that the benefits accruing from the financial backing of the State through QTC are shared between the borrower and the State.

Other taxes represent revenue from taxes such as the Statutory Insurance Scheme levy and the Nominal Defendant levy. Tax expenditures are reductions in tax revenue that result from the use of the tax system as a policy tool to deliver Government policy objectives. Tax expenditures are provided through a range of concessions, including tax exemptions, reduced tax rates, tax rebates, tax deductions and provisions which defer payment of a tax liability to a future period.

Appendix B provides details of tax expenditure arrangements currently provided by the Government. Taxation can impact on business decisions regarding investment and employment, and also household investment and home ownership. Own-source revenue is derived from total State revenue less any grants received from external sources, mainly the Australian Government.

As Chart 4. Population data from Commonwealth Budget. Table 4. Grants revenue is comprised of Australian Government grants, grants from the community and industry, and other miscellaneous grants. Australian Government grants. Other grants and contributions. Total current grants. Total capital grants. Total grants revenue. Australian Government payments to Queensland comprise:. NDRRA payments previously expected in are now expected to be provided over and This has also contributed to total estimated payments for specific purposes being lower in than in GST revenue grants 2.

Total payments for specific purposes 3. Total Australian Government payments. GST revenue grants and associated payments. GST revenue projections are based on expected growth in economic parameters, such as household consumption and dwelling investment, which have a strong link to the GST base. The distribution of GST revenues is based on the recommendations of the Commonwealth Grants Commission in accordance with the application of horizontal fiscal equalisation principles.

Payments for specific purposes. Chapter 7 provides further detail on Australian Government payments for specific purposes. Other grants and contributions are funds received from other state and local government agencies, other bodies and individuals. Contributions exclude Australian Government grants and user charges. The main sources of contributions are:. Revenues from other grants and contributions will vary from year-to-year based on the number and size of research projects, assets transferred between the Government and the private sector, and contributed assets and services.

Sales of goods and services revenue comprises cost recoveries from providing goods or services. The Government provides concessions in the form of discounts, rebates and subsidies to improve access to and the affordability of a range of services for individuals or families, based on eligibility criteria relating to factors such as age, income and special needs or disadvantage.

Appendix A provides details of the concession arrangements provided by the Queensland Government. Fee for service activities. Public Transport: South East Queensland. Rent revenue. Sale of land inventory. Hospital fees. Transport and traffic fees. Other sales of goods and services. Total sales of goods and services.

Major items of fee for service activities across the General Government Sector include:. As shown in Table 4. The Queensland Civil and Administrative Tribunal fee structure will be changed in to provide a disincentive for unmeritorious appeals. Further information on fee changes is in Budget Paper No. Interest income accounts for 4. Interest income is expected to decline, reflecting a reduction in the portfolio of financial assets held for defined benefit superannuation as a result of the implementation of the Debt Action Plan refer to Box 3.

Concurrently, there will be a decline in interest payable due to reduced borrowings as a result of the Debt Action Plan. Interest income primarily comprises interest earned on investments including those held for superannuation and insurance purposes. Dividend and income tax equivalent income account for 4. Total dividend and income tax equivalent income 2.

Income tax equivalent income comprises payments by government-owned corporations in lieu of state and Australian Government taxes and levies from which they are exempt. These payments arise from an agreement reached between the Australian Government and state governments in to establish a process for achieving tax uniformity and competitive neutrality between public sector and private sector trading activities. Dividends and income tax equivalent income do not represent the full extent of financial arrangements between the Public Non-financial Corporations Sector and the General Government Sector.

Other revenue, including royalty revenue, accounts for 5. Royalties themselves account for 3. Fines and forfeitures. Revenue not elsewhere classified. Total other revenue. Royalty estimates. The State earns royalties from the extraction of coal, base and precious metals, bauxite, petroleum and gas, mineral sands and other minerals and land rents from pastoral holdings, mining and petroleum tenures.

Royalties return some of the proceeds of the extraction of non-renewable resources to the community. Petroleum 2. Other royalties 3. Land rents. Total royalties and land rents. This weakness is largely due to falls in export coal and oil prices since MYFER, notwithstanding a partial recovery in prices in recent months. While royalty revenue is expected to decrease by 3. This mainly reflects increased export volumes and a modest recovery in prices for some commodities.

The major fines and infringements included in this category are issued by the Department of Transport and Main Roads and Queensland Police Service, incorporating fixed and mobile camera offences, speeding and tolling offences. The expected decrease of This is a result of an agreement with the toll road operator that will provide increased opportunities for customers to pay their tolls prior to referral to the State for the issue of a fine, amending decisions made in that gave rise to an increase in the number of fines for tolling offences referred to SPER.

Red light camera fines. Speed camera fines. Other camera detected offences. Other fines and forfeitures. Total fines and forfeitures. This chapter provides an overview of General Government Sector expenses for the estimated actual for , forecasts for the Budget year and projections for to The forward estimates are based on the economic projections outlined in Chapter 2.

Downward revisions to other operating expenses and grant expenses are the key contributions to lower overall expenses in Employee expenses. Superannuation interest costs. Other superannuation expenses. Other operating expenses. Depreciation and amortisation.

Other interest expenses. Grants expenses. Total Expenses. Factors influencing the higher expenditure include:. As outlined in Chart 5. Chart 5. Growth in the two largest categories, employee expenses and other operating expenses, is contributing most to growth in Employee expenses include salaries and wages, annual leave and long service leave. Much of the increase in employee expenses in is in the key frontline service areas of health and education.

Full-time equivalents. The Government commitment to revitalising frontline services is reflected in an increase in FTEs of almost 8, in The vast majority of this growth has been in frontline services, including increases in nurses, teachers and police officers. During the election, the Government made commitments to revitalise the State economy and frontline service delivery, especially in the areas of health, education and training.

Key commitments included employing 1, nursing graduates each year for four years, the introduction of a legislated nurse-to-patient ratio in specified health care settings, and an additional teachers over four years with the Extra Teachers commitment. The implications of these commitments for growth in the public service are evident in , and consolidated in Nine out of 10 public servants are engaged in frontline and frontline support roles.

Now that these services have been largely restored, the Government has introduced a new fiscal principle to maintain a sustainable public service by ensuring that overall growth in FTEs for in-scope agencies, on average over the forward estimates, does not exceed population growth. As can be seen in Chart 5. The State Government is taking strong measures to ensure that these estimates are delivered.

Growth in FTEs will be managed through Departments taking a whole-of-sector approach to reprioritise efforts and find opportunities that will grow and share talent to best meet new and challenging service priorities.

At the heart of this new approach is a more mobile, more adaptable public sector; one that is looking to develop its people, able to quickly and seamlessly shift resources to priority areas of need. An example of this is the successful internal movement of staff to the newly established Infrastructure Portfolio Office within the Department of Infrastructure, Local Government and Planning. This important new priority has been met without the need to recruit additional FTEs.

The same process is now being applied to support the Office of the Commonwealth Games for its role in delivering a highly successful GC with existing staff being sourced from across the service. For Queensland public servants, this approach represents a unique opportunity to gain experience on large-scale, fast-paced projects that are of fundamental importance to Queensland. For taxpayers, it maximises the return on their investment in a more responsive and efficient public service.

Departments are required to regularly report to the Board on overall financial and non-financial performance and FTEs to identify and explain any potential variance from budget estimates. This level of scrutiny will be enhanced. Devolved frontline service delivery models, such as for the 16 separate Hospital and Health Services and schools having the capacity to engage additional staff, present challenges to FTE estimation and monitoring.

In particular, funding is provided in such a way that agencies determine how to most efficiently deliver services. The Budget FTE estimates build in an allowance for this. Table 5. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Partnerships. Agriculture and Fisheries. Communities, Child Safety and Disability Services. Education and Training total-disaggregation below.

Electoral Commission of Queensland. Energy and Water Supply. Environment and Heritage Protection. Housing and Public Works. Infrastructure, Local Government and Planning 5. Justice and Attorney-General 6. National Parks, Sport and Racing. Natural Resources and Mines. Office of the Inspector-General Emergency Management. Premier and Cabinet. Public Safety Business Agency.

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Cedar closets. Appliances stay. Quiet neighborhood with idle only traffic. The building lot is. Plat allows for construction of a detached garage. Call for more information. West of Four Corners Stop Choose your lot now! Gonser Ave. Appliances go with home. Zoned B Buildings are in good condition and ready to go. A real money machine! Lake James - Gated 82 Acre Estate Owner relocating and listed way under current appraisal. Obviously too much to describe. Is connected to regional waste and has well on site.

Spectacular family estate location. North Wayne Has pylon-sign. Steel framed building makes it adaptable to your needs. Plenty of parking and great visibility. Angola Dairy Queen Rare opportunity to purchase the only Dairy Queen in Steuben County. Includes all equipment and the DQ franchise. Grandfathered pylon sign. Angola 4 Acres Zoned Business Location, location, location.

This one has it. Commercial West Lot is level and ready to build. Near I and US 20 exit. Crooked Lake Regional waste on site. Nice adjoining homes. Spectacular views. Convenient 1st basin location. Located on all sports lake. Water and sewer to each site. Pavilion with showers and laundry. Great opportunity as a cooperative or as RV park. Lakefront Campground Good occupancy and amazing 7 acre location. Many returning tenants. CR West Zoned general business. Convenient location with high visibility.

Plenty of room for new owner or investor to lease up. Good location for a church or other family type organization. Terrace Pointe building pads. Build to your needs in this convenient and exciting location. Price includes use of parking.

Lighting, curb cuts, infrastructure in place greatly reducing your building costs. Has business pad condo in place with one pad sold and occupied. Very handy location. City utilities. Lake James Excellent business location for lakefront restaurant, marina or condo project. Pylons are in and ready to build on. City utilities, zoning in place. Line of sight to new Dollar General distribution center. All utilities available. This well maintained building has 3 levels and is located near the courthouse.

Plenty of parking in newly redesigned downtown quadrants. Secure vaults included for your valuables. ADA complaint, plenty of parking. Good condition and ready to go. Recent upgraded V 3 phase, newer rubber roof, fully sprinkled. Nice building! Includes amp bus duct, radiant heating, air compressor. Sitting on 4 acres. Great buy. For Rent Growth Parkway Good visibility. Growth Parkway - 1, s. Nice complex.

Angola - 6, s. Fully air conditioned. It can be just that simple! Presently being used as a custom woodshop plus office space. Take a look and explore the many possibilities. Off street parking, cold storage area, plus a heated work area. Nice covered porch, several barns and outbuildings. Large backyard for outdoor activities. Many updates including wiring, plumbing, furnace, air conditioning, windows, drywall, shingles, siding, kitchen and baths.

It has 3 BR, 1 BA and good closet space. A little bit of elbow grease and decorating, and it will be a great home! Level lot with mature trees. Angola schools. Many updates. Fremont schools. Located close to elementary school. DCU school system.

There is an older stately 2-story home that has been uninhabited for many years that some industrious buyer may want to rehabilitate. There is also a mobile home on the property that will be removed at closing or sold to prospective buyer. Fox Lake is a limited hour ski lake. Main floor incudes the foyer, dining room, large living room, master bedroom with bath, den, large kitchen with a walk-in pantry.

The walk-out basement includes 2 bedrooms, full bath, family room, and 2 bonus rooms. Screened-in porch. Insulated and heated 32x44 detached garage. Also included are a greenhouse and storage buildings. Property has 1 house and large storage building. Rental property or possible business location. Apple trees, grapes, raspberries, rhubarb, asparagus, lilac bushes and mature trees. House and garage are on 2 parcels of land and 3rd is across the road. Pleasant Lake and Angola schools.

Possession day of closing. Home has newer shingles, kitchen, bath, carpet and furnace. Located near park, schools and hospital. Home has a large warp-around deck, 2-car attached garage, new carpeting and fresh paint. Lakeland schools. Laundry is in the bedroom. Property has deck, 2 sheds and a large eat-in kitchen, all on a nice lot with mature trees.

Washer, dryer, refrigerator and water softener included. Unit 1 and Unit 2 are each sq. Both are 6 month lease and tenants pay utilities. Each unit has front and rear doors. Newer efficient furnace, basement family room, fireplace in living room and appliances included.

Home features covered porch, family room with wood burning fireplace, formal dining room and large living room. Wood flooring, new shingles in and a 1-car detached garage and shed. You can hire a designer or architect to work through the planning process it will cost money, typically percent of total construction cost. Then you have a set of drawings and specifications that you can get the contractors to look at and make recommendations and pricing.

It is always a good idea to interview two or three different contractors and typically you want to see what their approach will be. Yes, you want to see references, proof of insurances, licenses and certifications, but also check neighbors, friends and banks for recommendations.

But experienced construction companies with a workforce can get to any project in a timely manner. If the contractor you chose was a one-man show with occasional help from his brother it will take him months to finish what he is working on and hence will take months to finish your project also. I suggest you keep looking.

My wife and I are going to put our hQ. My girlfriend is building a new house in Fort Wayne and is in the process of making final kitchen decisions. She asked her builder about what to do for the back splash in the kitchen on the wall behind the cabinets like a row of tile or countertop material. He said that was a feature that is out of date and suggested to do the whole wall. Is this true? Marsha of LaGrange County A. Yes, some features of kitchen backsplash design can have hot and cold spots in design history.

Running a single tile and bull nose on the counter backsplash is pretty outdated today. Nowadays even a simple kitchen can have many exciting options for what to do with the backsplash. Wall cabinets are placed on walls independently with space for three dimensional range hood units that go all the way to the ceiling. These walls are very popular to cover in the countertop material such as quartz or marble; natural products such as small stone patterns have become very desirable.

The use of glass and metal to accent a tile backsplash can be fun and have a dramatic effect on end look. Areas under and around the range hood and duct can create a focal point made from tile or border material. Subway tile with smaller accent strips can have a lasting Old World charm that is simply outstanding. The advent of specialty tiles and patterns leaves you with an endless amount of options and can remain easy to maintain.

I have a 20 year-old home and have managed to keep things well maintained on the outside. One problem I have is that the finish has come off the surface of my outside concrete. The driveway and sidewalk have pits deterioration of the surface. Is there a way I can fix this up? Mike from Kendallville A. We have talked about good installation being critical to long term performance on anything regarding your home that you want to last 20 or 30 years.

Roofs, concrete, masonry and framing things should last that long but that is way out of standard warranties. Of course, you can jack hammer all the outside concrete up and after proper preparation and forming pour new walks and driveways.

If that is more than you were planning, yes, you can resurface your exterior concrete. Does it look the same as new concrete? No, not if you look close enough. But, yes, you can resurface and get excellent results and most would not know the difference. After the development of latex or polymer modified Portland cement resurface materials you can now mix and apply a coating that will restore your exterior concrete. First off it has to be concrete that is structurally sound and will not continue to crumble.

Waterproof gloves and eye protection is a must for this process. You will have to thoroughly clean the concrete surface with power washer and scrub with mild acid wash to make sure the surface is clean and free of any oil or dirt. Now you can tape off sections and apply restoration cement material by toweling or squeegee across existing. If your cracks and voids are large, filling those before the finish coat is recommended. This resurfacing is typically done be a professional for optimum performance; the skilled guys can add colors and all kinds of tricks such as texturing for stone type patterns along with imitation brick or paver look.

I saw a show the other day on TV where they were using a Styrofoam wall panel system for the house they were building. It looked very efficient and easy to assemble. Peter of Crooked Lake A. What you saw is commonly called SIPS walls or structurally insulated panel system.

Generally they are laminated panels of OSB sheeting on both sides and a core of polystyrene or foam insulation. SIPS panels are airtight and provide a continuous insulated wall system that is stronger than conventional wall systems. There is no heat loss with gaps in the insulation or conduction of the wood studs. It is a sealed wall so there is no chance of moisture trap typical with mold growth.

These panels come prefabricated to your specific project and can come completely engineered structurally. You simply assemble with wall studs, called splines, between large wall panels, creating a structural shell including walls and roof members. They have become much more popular in recent years for their energy efficiency. The panels are very common on timber frame structures where simple generic SIPS panels are used to cover the outside of the structure.

Unfortunately, they are not my first choice if you are adding on to your existing house. There would be simpler, more cost effective ways to add on to your home and still improve the overall energy efficiency of your current home. Questions for the Square Corners column may be submitted at ba-ni. Stunning home. Ranch with cathedral ceilings and open concept feel. Great room has an eat-in kitchen overlooking the bay.

Slim Shades throughout the home except sun room. Beautiful deck. Garage with work bench and storage. Custom made Grabill cabinets in great room. New dock and new awning on deck. Move-in ready home. Amazing deal! Immaculate, well maintained home on 1 acre lot with room for a pool! This home features an open concept living space with 3 large bedrooms and 2 full baths. Home also has 2-car attached garage! Enjoy the peacefulness of being in the country but close to all the amenities of being in Angola!

Very well maintained home inside and outside. Front porch area and a deck overlooking the back yard. Seller has put a furnace, central air, and a water hearter in three years ago. Two of the bedrooms have cathedral ceilings. Great eat-in kitchen with a huge pantry. Basement has lots of room for storage. Great neighborhood. Amazing property with over 11, sq. Buildings are heated and would make a great storage facility. Home is on almost an acre lot with a beautiful wooded setting.

Unique home and well maintained. Lower level with theater room and game room. Lots of storage. Walk-out basement has nice patio under the upper deck. Stunning waterfront home on located Wall Lake. Must See!! Master has walk-in closet with custom built shelving and spacious master bath.

Kitchen features a custom bench for your large table with plenty of sitting room, updated stainless steel gas stove, back splash and cabinets have plenty of storage. The lower level offers 2 possibly 3 bedrooms with a full bath and breathtaking views of nature and water.

The second bedroom is quite large with custom shelving in the closet. Mechanical room is in this area. The family room is spacious with glass sliding doors. This home features Spanish laced ceilings, cedar shake on the front porch, solid hickory cabinets in the kitchen, cedar trim throughout the home and features Pecky Cypress and so much more!

The home has 6 inch walls which keep utilities low. Call today for your personal tour. Well maintained site built single wide. Completely remodeled, the main living and kitchen area in , also has two bedrooms and two baths.

Ceramic tile in both bathrooms and wood laminate throughout main living area. Selling furnished is negotiable and immediate occupancy available. Well maintained home with 1, sq. Two bedrooms and a nice size living room, kitchen area, and a large room that could be made into a third bedroom. New furnace.

This lot is. Nice size garage. Spacious kitchen with lots of cabinets and large pantry. Half bath in laundry room. Covered porch area. Must see. What a great opportunity to get on the Lake James Chain!!! A total of 3 lots which gives you feet of road frontage and is feet deep. Beautiful level lot to build your home on. The lake access is a very short walk from the property. Sellers will sell on a Land Contract. Looking for a way to get onto Lake James and build your dream home?

This lot is a nice corner lot and is level. Association lake access through the association. Lot size is 83x Steuben Regional Waste and natural gas is available. Build your home on this lot located in a great neighborhood! Wonderful association provides a picnic area, pavilion, parking, boat ramp, volleyball court, beach area and docks for members. You might want to check this one out! Great location to bring a home in or stick build one. This lot is ready for you with a concrete slab, a well, all of the electrical is ran under ground and available to connect to, sewer is in place, and a 24x30 garage to put all of your cars or boats in.

Enjoy all of the beautiful trees with lots of potential to build your new home here! Step back to yesteryear and enjoy a large collection of all original nostalgia that has taken many years to collect. This property has almost 8 acres of land with almost 3 acres of woods. Large pond. An additional 40x80 pole building that is double insulated. Two bedroom, 2 full bath, 2, sq.

Incredible building site to put your new dream home!! This lot is a pie shaped lot with Great views of Snow Lake, a fabulous lawn, 2 large shade trees, level lot, and a new rock sea wall. Seller would consider doing a land contract. What a way to get on an incredible lake! The kitchen offers a large island bar and lots of storage. Plenty of parking behind the home and a deck to grill out on.

Very close to restaurants, outlet mall, the toll road and I New improvements include a new roof. Plenty of parking for entertaining family and friends. Adorable log cabin overlooking Crooked Lake. Original logs have been maintained. Remodeled with a new custom built kitchen, all new appliances, all new electrical on the east side of home, all new decking, new cathedral ceilings, and a new tin roof.

Nicely landscaped with a large patio deck with feet of lake front. Custom built by Sievers Construction, this immaculate 3 bedroom, 2 bath home is worth a look at! Cathedral ceiling in spacious living room. Eat-in kitchen with beautiful cabinets and lots of storage. Large patio, fenced-in back yard. Master has jetted tub. Spacious home with original woodwork throughout.

New windows, carpet, paint, siding, and roof. The front porch is covered an very spacious! Close to shopping, schools and downtown. Delightful custom built home! Open staircase leads to a large room to entertain in. Custom cabinetry in kitchen which includes breakfast bar.

Concrete driveway. Well maintained singlewide manufactured home on a one acre parcel in rural Orland. The property has a one car garage with a workshop as well as a large shed for additional storage. This 5 bedroom, one bath home is one block from downtown Orland.

Beautiful woodwork though out. Includes an additional lot on the west side of the property to provide space for outdoor activities or even a second home. Must see commercial property. Paved and concrete parking area for up to 30 vehicles. This potential building lot has the ability to access city utilities from the opposite side of S. Property is zoned C2 - medium to large General Commercial.

The property features concrete seawall, large pier, and sandy beach. Large master suite. Great views of the lake from the kitchen, dining room, and porch. Immaculately landscaped and extremely well maintained. Oversized two car garage. Whole house generator. New central air conditioner systems added to the upper and main levels.

This home has been extremely well maintained and is ready to move into! Just minutes from Angola and the Angola schools. This is a must see! This lakefront home features a wrap-around porch for great sunset views over the lake. An attached, but private, living quarters which includes a full kitchen, full bath, living area and bedroom for guests.

Extremely well maintained home is ready to move into! The property has beautiful landscaping, and a detached garage. This home sits on a large lakefront lot. Master upstairs walks out on top balcony. All appliances stay except freezer in garage. Also staying is a pontoon and paddle boat. Well maintained home. Master bedroom on the main level. Fantastic views from the deck of this 2 bedroom, 1 bath mobile home on Crooked Lake with feet of channel frontage on three lots and a private quiet setting.

Spacious eat-in kitchen and breakfast bar. Enjoy in the summer or year-round living on the lake. Great beach with pier on Fox Lake. Great summer getaway or could be used year around. This 3 bedroom, 2 bath home is located in the back of a great Fremont neighborhood. Close to town and schools. Partially fenced large back yard additional fence is already purchased and available for completion.

Schedule a private showing today! Great building lot with deeded access to Little Lime Lake near Orland. This parcel is already updated with a well and sewer. Reduced to sell! Great investment opportunity. Lease one side and live in the other or lease both side for an investment.

Both units are currently rented. Large back yard with ample parking. You must see this wonderfully maintained home! Many parcels of land for residential, commercial and development are available. Please visit my website or call me directly for details of all lots and land listings. All dressed up and ready to go! Spacious remodeled kitchen.

New bath upstairs with 2 bedrooms. Remodeled bathroom and bedroom on the main floor. New flooring, fresh paint, metal roof recoated. Attached garage and 2 outbuildings. Close to Angola and the lakes. Gracious new oak kitchen.

Private master suite by living room with 4 more bedrooms near the family room. Walk to the pool from the deck. Space for a garden, children and pets to play on over 4 acres. This charming home has it all! Enjoy the sunshine from the enclosed porch. A quaint kitchen and dining area.

Toe friendly,new carpet in the 3 bedrooms. Clean beasement and attached garage all sittong on a spacious corner lot. Steel frame, free standing building with 8, sq. Concrete floor, docking facilities, truck wells and ramps at two overhead doors. Third overhead door is 14x Investors, look at this duplex!

Each unit is 2 bedroom, 1 bath with attached garage. New stove and carpet with fresh paint in one unit. Lots available in The Meadows subdivision. Build your dream home with the builder of your choice. Small town living with a super size location. Near several lakes, main highways and larger towns.

Spacious ft. Wrap-around deck. Attached 2-car garage, sheds and 2 back lots. The office building has a reception area, office and break room. Back side is fenced for security. Wooded 1. Three lots with a view of the lake. Lake access just across the road. Large deck with hot tub overlooking the dock. Full finished basement, two bedrooms on main floor and two full baths. Great way to get on a ski lake without the price!

This cutie lives large with an open floor plan, neutral decor and quality updates. Lots of natural light through newer windows with views of Crooked Lake's sandbar. Large bedroom with walk-in closet plus French doors to the back yard. Natural cherry cabinets line the kitchen. Brand new carpet throughout. Lake access is just across the street.

Current owner added new studs and trusses, windows, insulation, drywall and vinyl siding so the cottage is like new! Sit out on the deck this summer and enjoy the view of the lake. The 2-car garage has a work bench, gas furnace and a sink. The kitchen and living room are an open concept with a fireplace.

Get ready for summer fun at the lake. This Jimmerson Lake home was built in on two lots, approximately 90 feet of frontage on the water. Sit and enjoy the sunset view from the screened-in porch or the deck that stretches across the front of the house.

Lake James Golf Course, fairway 15! There is a sunroom and a 3-car finished garage. Be the first owners of this 3 bedroom, 2 bath ranch located at Glendarin Hills. Attached oversize finished 2-car garage. This lot is designed for a walk-out basement. Your new home will overlook hole 13 at Glendarin Golf Course. Ranch home is located on the 14th fairway. This 3 bedroom home has a sunroom and a finished 3-car garage.

Choose Sandi Davis Cather. Consistent Multi-Million Dollar Producer. Call today: Email: Sandi SandiCather. This cottage is located on a level lot on the south side of Clear Lake with an awesome beach area. Featuring updated seawall in , new siding, windows and furnace with central air in The 30x40 detached garage has electric, 2 work benches, and cabinets for storage.

New cement driveway to the garage installed in There is a yard, garden area and additional shed behind the garage. Dock and boat lift are included. Go to our Website at www. Visit my website at RJeffSmith. It has a great payment calculator! Fabulous estate home with 75 ft. Exquisite custom cabinets and woodwork throughout. This is a one of a kind! Call today for a private tour. Exquisite custom built home with a one of a kind view.

Amazing sunsets and plenty of shade. This 3 BR, 4 bath home is built for entertaining, complete with full wet bar in lower level. This one will not last long. Fabulous custom built 4 BR lake home. Open concept. Windows and skylights galore!! Plenty of room in the extra large three car garage.

Very unique level property on Hamilton Lake. With 60 ft of sandy lake frontage on the gold coast. Kitchen and great room have stunning west views of the lake. Lots of storage throughout. Outstanding Estate Home! Custom cabinets and woodwork throughout. Granite countertops and new appliances. Spacious patio with an in-ground pool. Are you looking for the perfect home and view on Lake George? Well, here it is! This 3 bedroom, 2 bath home is on a level lot located on the east shoreline where you will be able to enjoy the most spectacular sunsets.

Home has a 2 car heated garage and also another 1 garage. Pristine sandy beach on Hamilton Lake. Enjoy the lake life now. Stunning brand new custom build home on Hamilton Lake. Complete with stainless appliances, granite counter tops, tiled baths, and much, much more. Call Danielle today for a tour! Three bedroom, 2. The den could be used as a 4th bedroom The home is geothermal and very efficient.

The oversized two car garage is paneled and heated with a work bench. Great for storing all the lake toys. What a unique property on Hamilton Lake!! This estate home has 4 BR, 3 full BA, a private den, a workshop, and 22 feet of lake frontage. Plenty of yard and community parks just walking minutes away. This home has a very open concept and plenty of room for guests and entertaining. Outstanding country estate on private lake. Open concept home with screened in porch.

A new geothermal system was installed in and new exterior paint in Many new amenities and all appliances stay. Very unique location. Nice concrete seawall and nice deep level lot. Cottage has two bedrooms and large bath, with a nice open concept with great lake views. Call for a tour today.

New siding, roof, carpet, paint and landscaping. Extra large garage that can accommodate up to 4 cars or plenty of room for outdoor storage. Enjoy entertaining on your concrete patio, or the extra large family room. All new stainless steel appliances with cherry cabinets and solid oak flooring. Three season room off the master bedroom. Check this one out!!

This is a square foot home that can easily be transitioned to a two bedroom. Two kitchens and two full baths. Call today to schedule an appointment. Open concept and is completely furnished. Also included is the pier, and all appliances. Close to town, parks, and the additions private beach. Extra buildable lot is also available.

Extra-large deck overlooking the pond and large yard. This home also has an extra-large family room in the basement. What a great value!! This 4 bedroom, 2 bath home on Hamilton Lake has tons of potential. This home has over sq. Also included is a very well maintained 2 car garage. Call today. Tile throughout kitchen, half bath and laundry. Call today for your private tour. Year round ranch with 80 ft. Home has great sunroom,2 large family rooms, and a two car garage.

Enjoy the scenery and great 23X25 foot pole barn on the back lot. Ask the agent what it takes to be turnkey! Kitchen has newer tiled floors with glass tile back splash. Vaulted master suite with nice views and XL master bath. Also included is a 56 X 30 heated and concrete floored outbuilding with 3 garage doors, and office, and half bath. Come check this incredible value out!

This quaint little cottage has 2 bedrooms, 1 bath, a screened in porch to watch the sunsets, and a very open concept. Please call today to start living the lake dream! Nice 4 bedroom, 2 bath ranch. Newer wood laminate floors in bedrooms, 2 fireplaces, and great location.

What a value! Plenty of room to have guests and a large commons area for children to play. Walking distance to both Hamilton Parks. A 30 x 40 pole barn with spacious fenced in kennel. Fully remodeled kitchen with stainless appliances. Spectacular views from this cozy little cottage! Very nice and new paint and updates throughout. This is cottage is completely turn key ready! Great three bedroom home on a culde-sac street close to park. New carpet, flooring, and paint. This great value also includes a fenced in yard and double lot with two storage buildings.

Great investment or starter home. Spacious backyard and open concept. Home has new paint and carpet throughout. Just a few opportunities left at the Crooked Lake Beach Club. One of a kind in Northeast Indiana. Only 14 lots left. Call to schedule a tour and start your new home construction before summer.

Great swimming beach. Lots of storage, gazebo to relax in with no bugs, all vinyl decking. Roof is only 3 years old. This home has been very well maintained. Could be a year round home or lake retreat. Private setting like no other. Just shy of 25 acres of natural and beautiful landscaping surround this large, open concept home with all new updates. Add the fawn river for a canoe ride located all along the property. Built in sound system indoors and out. Gorgeous home and property.

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The Senate voted that former presidents can face an impeachment trial, clearing the way for arguments over whether former President Donald Trump incited the Capitol riot. Behind the vote. Could decrease property values. Conway, 16, quickly became a trending topic on Twitter Monday night after she was featured in a commercial for the singing competition show. Rest assured, the stimulus payments are not taxable income. They are structured as tax rebates, so they are neutral to your income tax filings.

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Stripped of her congressional committee assignments, Rep. Marjorie Taylor Greene may actually gain support in her deep-red northwest Georgia district. In an emotional statement at the impeachment trial, Rep. Jamie Raskin recalled the terror experienced by lawmakers during the Capitol riot. The "Jeopardy! Relatives leave tributes on Instagram. IMG Models announced that it's now representing the teen, who turned 18 last month.

The broadcast attracted an average audience of about 92 million viewers, roughly 9 percent below last year's game, according to Nielsen data. CBS: Commercial time sold out. The video showed rioters throwing down barriers, hitting police officers and at one point telling one: "We outnumber you a million to one out here. Only 'saw it from about 30 yards away'.

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